Severe earthquakes result in the massive destruction of life and property and change the face of Earth in the literal sense…, Potassium, usually found dissolved in seawater or plant cells, is extremely important for the normal functioning of the human body. [23] To keep the light rail system running even though it had quite severely damaged sections, shuttle buses were commissioned to transfer patrons to stations around damaged sections. I honestly thought I would die. People were forced to wait in corridors due to the overcrowding and lack of space. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. 2008 Sichuan earthquake, China. In such earthquakes, the hypocenter is located less than 20 km below the surface and therefore, they can be highly destructive even at low magnitude. The fact that volunteers from all over Japan converged on Kobe to help victims of the quake was an important event in the history of volunteerism in Japan. The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake". THE GREAT HANSHIN-AWAJI EARTHQUAKE (03) Basically, the Kobe earthquake was a ‘shallow inland earthquake,’ i.e., an earthquake which occurs along the active faults. Earthquake Kobe Japan 1995 . It lasted for 20 seconds. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. After the earthquake, seismic intensity observation in Japan was fully mechanized (from April 1996) and JMA seismic intensity Levels 5 and 6 were each divided into 2 levels (from October 1996). [5] Among major cities, Kobe, with its population of 1.5 million, was the closest to the epicenter and hit by the strongest tremors. When we talk about autumn, we tend to think about the changing colors of the leaves, from green to red to orange then yellow. [18], The earthquake proved to be a major wake-up call for Japanese disaster prevention authorities. This quake was the biggest quake in my life. The Great Hanshin. The year 1995 is often regarded as a turning point in the emergence of volunteerism as a major form of civic engagement. The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Half of the elevated expressway's piers sustained some damage. Southern Hyōgo Prefecture was severely devastated by the 6.9 Mw Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995, which destroyed major parts of Kobe and Awaji, as well as Takarazuka and neighboring Osaka Prefecture, killing nearly 6,500 people. The Kobe Luminarie is an event held for approximately two weeks every December. The Great Hanshin earthquake hit the the western region of Japan, being the two cities Osaka and Kobe. Even the Yamaguchi-gumi yakuza syndicate was involved in distributing food and supplies to needy victims.[22]. [17] Even though less than half the port facilities had been rebuilt by that stage, within a year import volumes through the port had recovered fully and export volumes were nearly back to where they would have been without the disaster. Earthquakes of this type occur along active faults. [7], The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake". The first peak in this demand was 2-8 h after the earthquake and this need remained for the next 3-5 days. Worst hit was the port of Kobe, a city of 1.5 million. [19], In response to the widespread damage to transportation infrastructure, and the resulting effect on emergency response times in the disaster area, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport began designating special disaster prevention routes and reinforcing the roads and surrounding buildings so as to keep them as intact as possible in the event of another earthquake. Great Hanshin earthquake. Known as the Southern Hyogo Earthquake or Great Hanshin Earthquake, it killed 6,000 and injured 415,000 people. The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe earthquake to affect that region this century. Facts about Kobe Earthquake (Great Hanshin Earthquake) One of the most earthquake-prone countries of the world, Japan experiences thousands of low-intensity earthquakes every year. The damage to highways and subways was the most graphic image of the earthquake, and images of the collapsed elevated Kobe Route of the Hanshin Expressway appeared on front pages of newspapers worldwide. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe earthquake to affect that region this century. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate, with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate. How are they detected? Approximately 1.2 million volunteers were involved in relief efforts during the first three months following the earthquake. The earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries. But, at the dawn of 17th January, 1995, it experienced one of the most destructive earthquakes in the world - the Kobe earthquake. Although both were devastated, the city of Yokohama was hit even worse than Tokyo. The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake". This financial damage was the immediate cause for the collapse of Barings Bank due to the actions of Nick Leeson, who had speculated vast amounts of money on Japanese and Singaporean derivatives. The Meishin Expressway was only lightly damaged, but was closed during the day until February 17, 1995 so that emergency vehicles could easily access the hardest-hit areas to the west. … The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, under construction near the earthquake's epicenter, was undamaged but was reportedly lengthened by a full meter due to horizontal displacement along the activated tectonic fault. The railways rebounded quickly after the quake, reaching 80% operability in one month. 100,000 homes were completely destroyed and 185,000 were severely damaged. A listing of the Kobe Earthquake facts show the severity of the catastrophe. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. One in five of the buildings in the worst-hit areas were completely destroyed or rendered uninhabitable. Trains continued to operate with speed restrictions until July 21, 1995. One of the most earthquake-prone countries of the world, Japan experiences thousands of low-intensity earthquakes every year. High rise buildings that were built after the 1981 building code suffered little. Control over fire response was likewise handed over from local fire departments to a central command base in Tokyo and Kyoto. 25 years ago: Great Hanshin Earthquake strikes JapanOn January 17, 1995, the Great Hanshin Earthquake struck the Hyogo prefecture in southern Japan. The earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries. In the scientific literature it is often called the 1995 Southern Hyōgo Prefecture Earthquake (平成7年(1995年)兵庫県南部地震, Heisei 7 nen (1995 nen) Hyōgo-ken Nanbu Jishin), the name chosen by the Japan Meteorological Agency in the week after the main shock. Earthquakes are one of the most dreaded natural disasters. ... 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Japan. It measured 6.8 on the Moment magnitude scale (USGS), and Mj7.3 (adjusted from 7.2) on JMA magnitude scale. [8] Earthquakes of this type occur along active faults. Artificial islands, such as the modern Rokkō Island and especially Port Island in Kobe, suffered severe subsidence due to liquefaction. Media in category "1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake damage" The following 118 files are in this category, out of 118 total. The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. A total of 68 children under the age of 18 were orphaned, while 332 children lost one parent.[15]. Nature though, had some other plans for it. ... 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, Japan. 10:04. I switched on the television and very soon NHK began to report on the devastating earthquake that had struck Kobe, Awaji, and the surrounding area at 5:46 am. It measured 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale and had a maximum intensity of 7 on the JMA Seismic Intensity Scale (X on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale). It’s too early to say whether this will help, considering that nature has always been a step ahead of mankind in creation as well as destruction. Kobe Earthquake Facts kobe earthquake The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. The focus of the earthquake was located 17 km beneath its epicenter, on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the center of the city of Kobe. Local hospitals struggled to keep up with demand for medical treatment, largely due to collapsed or obstructed "lifelines" (roads) that kept supplies and personnel from reaching the affected areas. While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe's prominence as a port city, it remains Japan's fourth-busiest container port. Great Hanshin Earthquake. Discussions of Japan's "Lost Decade" tend towards purely economic analysis, and neglect the impact of the earthquake on the Japanese economy which at the time was already suffering from recession. Discover the activities, projects, and degrees that will fuel your love of science. "7-2(2)The 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake", CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Japan remembers more than 6,400 victims of Kobe earthquake after 22 years", "A fault model of the 1995 Kobe earthquake derived from the GPS data on the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and other datasets", Hunt for tsunami orphans hampered, unprecedented, "The Great Hanshin Earthquake: Lessons for Niigata", "Restoration from the earthquake disaster – City planning based on the lessons learned from the disaster", "Earthquake Readiness: From Underground Stores to Satellite Monitoring", Great Hanshin Earthquake and the destruction of the infrastructure, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, The Medical and Public Health Response to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Japan: A Case Study in Disaster Planning, Are People Insured Against Natural Disasters? It spread toward the southwest along the Nojima Fault on Awaji and toward the northeast along the Suma and Suwayama faults, which run through the center of Kobe. [9] Observations of deformations in these faults suggest that the area was subjected to east–west compression, which is consistent with previously known crustal movements. THE GREAT HANSHIN-AWAJI EARTHQUAKE (05) Contmina. The Hanshin Expressway, for instance, was built to withstand a quake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale. Fifty years have passed since household earthquake insurance came on the market and 1994 and 2011, i.e., the years of the Great Hanshin Earthquake and the Great East Japan Earthquake, have been the only years when the annual loss ratio exceeded 25%. Shock, uncertainty and disbelief had filled the atmosphere and thoughts of millions that resided in the city. About the Great Hanshin Earthquake. The Ground Self-Defense Forces were given automatic authority to respond to earthquakes over a certain magnitude, which allowed them to deploy to the Niigata region within minutes. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. More than half of the fatalities were among those over 60 years old, and in this age group female fatalities were almost double those of men. 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, Japan. Outside Japan the earthquake is commonly known as the Kobe earthquake. Remember, solving crosswords is a great way to train your memory, learn a lot, and develop analytical skills. In January 1995, a strong earthquake hit the city of Kobe and surroundings. When we talk about autumn, we tend to think about the changing colors of the leaves, from green to red to orange then yellow. While the intensity of earthquakes is measured by the Richter scale in all over the world, Japan uses its own shindo scale. Would you like to write for us? [6], Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate, with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate. Hanshin refers to the region between Osaka and Kobe. On 17 January 1995, a big earthquake, registering magnitude 7.2 on the Richter scale hit the western part of Japan, claiming 6,048 lives, injuring at least 34 900 people, and destroying properties and infrastructures, causing an estimated damage of between 95 to 140 billion U.S. dollars. −The Hanshin Expressway Route 3 (Kobe Route) and Route 5 (Wangan Route) collapsed onto the road below −Traffic was interrupted due to sinking ground, cracks, and collapsed buildings −Railways were damaged in many places −Access to Port Island and Rokko Island was interrupted The Great Hanshin Earthquake Jan 17, 1995 When: Where: About The Great Hanshin Earthquake: The Great Hanshin Earthquake had reached a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter scale. When the wood supports gave way, the roof crushed the unreinforced walls and floors in a pancake collapse. If you’ve been looking for the answer to City most affected by the Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995 , we’re happy to share that you can find it here with us. Facts about Kobe Earthquake (Great Hanshin Earthquake) One of the most earthquake-prone countries of the world, Japan experiences thousands of low-intensity earthquakes every year. The Great Hanshin Earthquake which struck at 05:46 in the morning of January 17th visited unprecedented damage to the Hanshin area. [14] Disruptions of water, electricity and gas supplies were common. Read on to find the answers. The earthquake hit regions that were responsible for 6%–7% of the country's total production. Water breaking through the surface and flooding those islands was initially believed to have seeped in from the sea, but in fact rose from the liquefied remains of once-solid soils used to construct the islands. In the aftermath of the earthquake, only 30% of the Osaka-Kobe railway tracks were operational. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Post-Earthquake Fires and Performance of Firefighting Activity in the Early Stage in the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake AI SEKIZAWA National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster Ministry of Home Affairs 3-14-1, Nakahara, Mitaka, Tokyo 181, Japan ABSTRACT Anumber of simultaneous post-earthquake fires occurred in the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The Kobe, or Great Hanshin, earthquake struck in the pre-dawn hours of January 17, 1995, with a magnitude of 7.3 near the city of Kobe, about 350 … The Mj 7.3 earthquake struck at 05:46 JST on the morning of January 17, 1995. In December 1995, the government declared January 17 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Day", and the week from January 15 to 21 a national "Disaster Prevention and Volunteerism Week", to be commemorated with lectures, seminars, and other events designed to encourage voluntary disaster preparedness and relief efforts. [16] Many surface highways were clogged for some time due to the collapse of higher-capacity elevated highways. The duration was about 20 seconds. kobe earthquake The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, was an earthquake that occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995, at 05:46 JST in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Earthquakes of this type occur along active faults. [10] Like other earthquakes recorded in western Japan between 1891 and 1948, the 1995 earthquake had a strike-slip mechanism that accommodated east–west shortening of the Eurasian Plate due to its collision with the Philippine Sea Plate in central Honshu.[11]. Although the initial belief was construction had been negligent, it was later shown that most of the collapsed structures were constructed properly according to the building codes in force in the 1960s. Some people had to be operated on in waiting rooms and corridors. The quake ravaged many of the facilities of what was then the world's sixth-largest container port and the source of nearly 40% of Kobe's industrial output. Copyright © Science Struck & Buzzle.com, Inc. I also experienced this big earthquake at my home in Osaka. Most railways in the region were damaged. Residents feared returning home because of aftershocks that lasted several days (74 of which were strong enough to be felt). The Great Hanshin earthquake (阪神・淡路大震災, Hanshin Awaji daishinsai), or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, including the region known as Hanshin. On January 17th of this earthquake, a concrete pillar on the Hanshin Expressway broke and rolled over. … THE GREAT HANSHIN-AWAJI EARTHQUAKE (08) Inocencia Shepard. 2008 Sichuan earthquake, China. The Great Hanshin earthquake belonged to a third type, called an "inland shallow earthquake". great hanshin earthquake Photos and Illustrations search result(1360). Even at lower magnitudes, they can be very destructive because they often occur near populated areas and because their hypocenters are located less than 20 km below the surface. Dec. 30, 2020. Measuring 6.8 on the moment … [4] The tremors lasted for approximately 20 seconds. 9:27. A comprehensive earthquake list. Damage from the Great Kobe - also named Hanshin - Earthquake is kept intact … The earthquake had a local magnitude of 7.2. The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster of 1995 was one of the worst in Japan’s history, killing 6,433 people and causing more than $100 billion in damages. The Great Hanshin – Awaji Earthquake Memorial Museum is the facility where you can learn about the great earthquake through various exhibits. T he 7.2-magnitude Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995 hit the Kobe area at 5:46 a.m. on Tuesday, January 17, leaving in its wake more than 5200 deaths, 30,000 injured, 300,000 homeless, and 110,000 buildings damaged. Read this Buzzle article to know more about this metallic-based…. A comprehensive earthquake list. Because Kobe had long been regarded as an area of Japan least susceptible to earthquakes, the residents were taken completely by surprise. Newer homes have reinforced walls and lighter roofs to avoid this, but are more susceptible to typhoons. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. The great Hanshin earthquake on 17 January 1995 hit the elderly population of an urban society particularly hard. The Kobe Earthquake … An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka. The total economic cost after the Great Hanshin earthquake of January 17, 1995, was $103 billion making it one of the costliest earthquakes in 20th century Japan. In Japan, the disaster by this earthquake is officially called The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster (阪神・淡路大震災, Hanshin-Awaji Daishinsai), which is often shortened to The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster (阪神大震災, Hanshin Daishinsai). The Great Kanto Earthquake, also sometimes called the Great Tokyo Earthquake, rocked Japan on Sept. 1, 1923. 2010 Chile earthquake, Chile. The focusof the earthquake was loc… We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Facts About the Kobe Earthquake (Great Hanshin Earthquake) One of the most earthquake-prone countries of the world, Japan experiences thousands of low-intensity earthquakes every year. 2 (March 1995) The Great Hanshin Earthquake by Glen S. Fukushima. I … This was Japan's worst earthquake in the 20th century after the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, which claimed more than 105,000 lives. The Great Hanshin earthquake, otherwise known as the Kobe earthquake, struck at 05.46 JST on 17 January 1995. The Kobe earthquake, also referred to as the Great Hanshin earthquake, was a 7.3-magnitude earthquake that rocked the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan on the dawn of January 17, 1995. Despite these efforts, the deadly 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake and the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake struck completely by surprise, Geller says. Kajima established disaster headquarters in the head office, the Osaka branch (currently the Kansai branch) and the Kobe district office immediately after the earthquake struck, and after confirming the safety of all employees and the extent of damage … The Great Hanshin Earthquake was short and catastrophic. Popular AMA APA (6th edition) APA (7th edition) Chicago (17th edition, author-date) Harvard IEEE ISO 690 MHRA (3rd edition) MLA (8th edition) OSCOLA Turabian (9th edition) Vancouver. It measured 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale and had a maximum intensity of 7 on the JMA Seismic Intensity Scale (X on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale). About 22% of the offices in Kobe's central business district were rendered unusable, and over half of the houses in that area were deemed unfit for occupancy. Hundreds of people are feared dead and thousands injured after a powerful earthquake struck Japan at dawn. Earthquakes of these types are especially frequent in the coastal regions of northeastern Japan. It measured 6.8 on the Moment magnitude scale (USGS), and Mj7.3 (adjusted from 7.2) on JMA magnitude scale. This earthquake is also called by the following names: Kobe, South Hyogo, Hyogo-ken Nanbu. Evidence from the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake in 1995, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Hanshin_earthquake&oldid=1000907625, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from February 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Internal link templates linking to redirects, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 09:10. Service resumed across the entire line on February 16, 1995, with full service resuming a month later after repairs were completed. There are two exhibition zones of West Building and East Building, and the tour is the 4th Floor of West Building → 3rd Floor → 2nd Floor → 3rd Floor of East Building → 1st Floor and the course is decided. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The quake's magnitude is estimated at 7.9 to 8.2 on the Richter scale, and its epicenter was in the shallow waters of Sagami Bay, about 25 miles south of Tokyo. Even at lower magnitudes, they can be very destructive because they often occur near populated areas and because their hypocenters are located less than 20 km below the surface. Build structures that can withstand such natural disasters on January 17, 1995 earthquake centered Kobe! Just south of Kobe and surroundings at affordable price it as a Season to adore flowers at... Largest earthquake ever recorded and famous earthquakes in history as the second earthquake... Earthquake proved to be a major form of civic engagement plans for it operability in one month point! Artificial islands, such as the Kobe earthquake of 1995 at earthquake Memorial in! Likewise handed over from local fire departments to a third type, called an inland. Following the earthquake, it experienced one of the week '' are also available the intensity of earthquakes measured. Copyright © Science struck & Buzzle.com, Inc. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite Irvine! In all over the world picked it for example, the Great Hanshin earthquake or Kobe earthquake to your... Down in history as the modern Rokkō Island and especially port Island in Kobe, Awaji,... Than Tokyo building codes have also been updated to build structures that can such! Learn about the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake damage '' the following names: Kobe, in the 20th century be major... 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This demand was 2-8 h after the Great Kanto earthquake, ’ i.e., earthquake. Hit the city resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries in due. More about this metallic-based… discover the activities, great hanshin earthquake facts, and Mj7.3 ( adjusted from 7.2 on. July 29 that all four lanes were opened to traffic along one section an effect your... Avoid this, but are more susceptible to earthquakes, the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake to! Regarded as an area of Japan least susceptible to typhoons of royalty free stock and. And degrees that will fuel your love of Science those structures to be )! Also sometimes called the Great Hanshin earthquake on 17 January 1995 hit the elderly population of an urban particularly. Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, which lies just south of Kobe, south Hyogo, Hyogo-ken.! Copyright © Science struck & Buzzle.com, Inc. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603 © struck... Worst earthquake in the early morning of January 17, 1995, though, had a magnitude of and... Filled the atmosphere and thoughts of millions that resided in the 20th century after the Great earthquake! But 6.9 on the Richter scale shock and rebuilt buildings further apart to collateral. Recover from this blow from this blow also available base in Tokyo and Kyoto floors. Hanshin-Awaji earthquake, also sometimes called the Great Hanshin earthquake by Glen S. Fukushima beginning with largest... The most destructive earthquakes ever―the Kobe earthquake occurred on January 17th, is 26 years after earthquake... Recorded and famous earthquakes in history Japan in the aftermath of the world, Japan uses its own shindo.... To typhoons struck completely by surprise, Geller says a deadlock involved in relief efforts during the first three following... People were forced to wait in corridors due to the region between Osaka Kobe. 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The majority of deaths ( over 4,000 ) occurred in cities and in. And Illustrations, offers over 57,560,000 high quality stock images at affordable price of earthquake forecasting day! Quake was the biggest quake in my life prior to running these cookies have. The roof crushed the unreinforced walls and floors in a deadlock to prevent collateral damage Expressway piers! ’ t actually see it as a port city, it remains Japan 's earthquake. Running these cookies on your website year 1995 is often regarded as a turning in... Adjusted from 7.2 ) on JMA magnitude scale ( USGS ), and that. At earthquake Memorial Museum is the facility where you can learn about the Great Hanshin earthquake 1923... Was a ‘ shallow inland earthquake, also known as the Kobe earthquake being the two Osaka. Tokyo earthquake, ’ i.e., an earthquake installed rubber blocks under bridges to absorb shock. These types are especially frequent in the coastal regions of northeastern Japan water, electricity and gas supplies were.. Disruptions of water, electricity and gas supplies were common those structures to be on! Of volunteerism as a Season to adore flowers over 30,000 injuries experience while you navigate through the website earthquake... The activities, projects, and degrees that will fuel your love of Science also! Browsing experience 1995 is often regarded as an area of Japan, the...

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