Kobe earthquake On January 17th, 1995, Japan was woken at 5:46am by its largest ever recorded earthquake. Most are so small that we don't even know about them, and they only get recorded by the related professional agencies. The problem was pervasive because the majority of the waterfront facilities were reclaimed lands consisting of loose to medium-dense cohesionless fills. The 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken Nanbu) earthquake (Mw 6.9) is the most damaging in the recent Japanese his- tory, and its notable feature is that most of the damage and over 6000 casualties occurred in a narrow belt through Kobe and neighboring cities (the Kobe-Hanshin area). By a year later the major Kobe Port was 80% functional, but the Hanslin Expressway still remained closed! 104,906 houses were completely destroyed, and 460,000 were damaged. Primary effects included the collapse of 200,000 buildings, the destruction of 120 of the 150 quays in the port of Kobe, and fires which raged over large portions of the … Not the one? People live in Kobe after the earthquake because they believe that the impacts of future earthquakes will be reduced. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Its effects on people who survived were more of psychological, with thousands of individuals just refusing to return home as aftershocks continued to rock the island nation for the next several days to come. Log in now! It is written by Toshi Matsui, a Japanese university student. On January 17, 1995, a major earthquake struck near the city of Kobe, Japan, killing more than 6,000 and making more than 45,000 people homeless. » The huge loss of life in the Kobe earthquake can be attributed to two reasons: firstly, it occurred in one of the most populated areas of the world, and secondly, it took everyone by surprise. The voluntary activities of individual members contributed significantly to aid as well. During the 1995 disaster, the land sank, causing flooding. Several other structures were destroyed, including the km long stretch of the Hanshin Expressway which collapsed and featured in the headlines of all the leading dailies in the world the very next day. In 2011 in Scotland there was winds up to 69mph and in the mountain summits it was up to 115mph . Buildings were not the only structures to be destroyed though. If this plate gets stuck it causes a lot of pressure on surrounding rocks. S-waves are the secondary or shear waves. Earthquakes are usually caused by the movement of the earth's tectonic plates. The annual festival remembers the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake and the subsequent revival KOBE, JAPAN - DECEMBER 12, 2012: Luminarie light festival. In this article, I offer an overview from an economic perspective of Kobe 19 months after the event and what has been learned since. The Great Hanshin Earthquake measured 7.2 on the Richter scale and lasted over 20 seconds. The effects can be divided into primary and secondary effects. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. JavaScript seem to be disabled in your browser. The lesson requires students to timeline the events of the Kobe Earthquake and categorise these into Causes, Primary Effect and Secondary Effects in the format of a Disaster Response Room. Liquefaction & Ports: Kobe Port and waterfront facilities in Kobe, Japan, suffered extensive damage due to liquefaction during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. A total of 6,434 people died during this earthquake – of which around 4,600 were from the port city of Kobe alone. The Earthquake Memorial Park located to the northeast of the Be Kobe Monument. The earthquake was due hear because of the shallow depth of the focus which was only about 16 km, below the surface and the fact that the epicentre occurred close to a very heavily populated area. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. All Rights Reserved. Statistically speaking, one in every five buildings of the worst affected areas had collapsed, as a result of which approximately 300,000 people were rendered homeless by this earthquake. Infrastructural collapse also brought most of the medical facilities in the region to a complete standstill, while disruption of the electricity supply and damaged roads and rail lines made rescue work all the more difficult. THE KOBE 1995 EARTHQUAKE Kobe is located 430 km southwest of Tokyo and is an important port city with close to 1.5 million people Kobe (Great Hansin) EQ: hit the Hansin region of Western Japan that includes the city of Kobe on the 17th of January 1995 at 5:46am The earthquake lasted about 20 seconds with a strength of 7.2 on the Would you like to write for us? The sheer size of the earthquake caused a major decline in Japanese stock markets and factories were destroyed thus people in the neighbourhood had to search for work. In terms of money, Japan lost ten trillion yen – which amounted to US$102.5 billion, to this earthquake. 100miles northeast of Rome What: 1. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The effects of Kobe Earthquake 5:46am 17th January 1995 Primary Effects The immediate impact of the natural hazard e.g people injured and killed Building collapse Secondary Effects The medium and long term after affects of a natural hazard e.g shortage of drinking water disease Primary or Secondary? Statistically speaking, one in every five buildings of the worst … The earthquake that hit Kobe during the winter of 1995 measured 6.9 on the Richter scale. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! Kobe had not had a major earthquake for more than 400 years so there was less prediction equipment there than in other areas of Japan. One of the most earthquake-prone countries of the world, Japan experiences thousands of low-intensity earthquakes every year. Even though the effects of Kobe earthquake were not as intense as that of the Great Kanto earthquake (1923), there was a lot for the mankind to learn from this natural disaster. 79,000 people were killed. Response Immediately after the earthquake hit, a tsunami warning was issued which may have saved many lives. The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe earthquake to affect that region this century. A great amount of asbestos was left in bags. S-waves are also more commonly known as aftershocks. They include the collapse of buildings, bridges and roads resulting from the shaking of the crust. L?Aquila, Italy 2. We hope you are enjoying ScienceStruck! What causes the earthquake? or Primary effects included the ruin of 150,000 buildings, the collapse of 1 km of the Hanshin Expressway, the destruction of 120 of the 150 quays in the port of Kobe, and fires which raged over large portions of the city. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback, AS and A Level resources with teacher and student feedback, International Baccalaureate resources with teacher and student feedback, University resources with teacher and student feedback. Europe 3. About 80% of this waste was incombustible waste (produces harmful gases when burned). The waves spread out from the point where the earthquake started - the focus. These are the waves that actually cause the most damage. About 20 million tons of waste was emitted. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The July after the earthquake lead to huge improvements in Kobe's overall wellbeing. Get Full Access Now Continue reading for more information on this earthquake, with emphasis on its aftermaths. When this pressure is released it produces shock waves. Liquefaction of fill materials on Port and Rokko Islands resulted in ground settlement of 20-50 cm. Environmental Earthquake effects include waste and air pollution and landfill disposal. Residents were afraid to return home because of aftershocks that lasted several days (74 of which were strong enough to be felt). Buildings collapsed. 1,000,000 families and people were homeless in Haiti and no more than 300,000 people were homeless in Kobe because it depended on how strong the buildings were so because the buildings were strong in Kobe, not many buildings had fallen down, so not many people were homeless. Several expressways – including the severely damaged Hanshin Expressway, were closed as they were rendered unusable as a result of the damage caused to them. It occurred at 05:46 JMT, on 17th January, 1995, measured Mj7.3 on the JMA magnitude scale (i.e. Somewhere around 150 quays – wharfs built parallel to the shoreline, at Kobe port were damaged by this earthquake, and this – in turn, resulted in disastrous effects on the economy of Japan as trade from the port of Kobe was hampered by the damage caused to it. Primary effects. Over 300,000 were left homeless. Richter Scale: 6.3 3. Authorities who had proclaimed the superior earthquake-resistance capabilities of Japanese construction were quickly proved wrong by the collapse of numerous supposedly … Extensive soil liquefaction was observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake, creating damage to port and harbour facilities in Port Kobe. The earthquake that struck the Japanese port city of Kobe in the early morning of January 17, 1995, was the most severe quake ever to strike a modern urban area. During this time Japan was facing recession and therefore this earthquake added a big blow on Japan as a country. Furthermore, in a landfill site in the mountains in Kobe city, Fusehata site, all sorts of earthquake waste including toxic chemical substances were piled up mountain-high and a temporarily established incinerator was in a full-operation. Influenza is a mild flu disease which is not infectious however, colds and flu viruses did spread, and this made the death rate even higher. The city's infrastructure was badly damaged. Most of the death and destruction was not caused directly by the earthquake, but by the hundreds of fires that followed it. Effects of Kobe Earthquake Somewhere around 200,000 buildings collapsed when the Kobe earthquake occurred in 1995, thus leaving scores of people either dead under their debris or homeless. Copyright © Science Struck & Buzzle.com, Inc. Prime Minister Naoto Kan urged the nation to be calm and said the government will do its utmost to minimize damage from the quake. Japan is one of the most geologic ally active regions on Earth, a place where four major tectonic plate s—the Eurasian, Philippine, Pacific, and North American—meet and interact. The earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries. 300,000 people became homeless. As this amount constituted to 2.5 percent of the nations GDP, this loss resulted in a domino effect on the economy of the nation. Objective: To examine the effects of the Kobe, Japan, earthquake, a life-threatening event, on stress and glycemic control in diabetic patients. There are many places which have experienced some of the worst…, Earthquakes are a daily occurrence on our planet. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The immediate effects of any earthquake are known as the primary effects. Seismic shockwaves travelled from Awaji Island (the epicentre) along the Nojima Fault to the cities of Kobe and Osaka. There was no environment-protection such as rubber sheeting in the Fusehata site. d) What other primary effects resulted from the earthquake? Discover the activities, projects, and degrees that will fuel your love of science. The Effects of the Earthquake: The immediate effects of the earthquake are known as primary effects. There are two types of waves S-waves and P-waves. Learn the basics with our essay writing guide. The earthquake was notable for exposing the vulnerability of the infrastructure. These are called seismic waves. The significance of the Kobe Earthquake to the United States lies in the fact that Kobe was considered to be a region of low or even negligible risk of moderate earthquakes--an alarming fact for low seismic activity regions of the United States that are ill prepared to withstand the effects of a Kobe-force earthquake. Already have an account? Secondary effects included disruption of the electricity supply. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Why did the earthquake happened here? 6.8 on the USGS movement magnitude scale.). Revision notes - the Earth, causes and effects of Volcanoes and Earthquakes. The earthquake measured 7.2 magnitude and was the biggest to hit Japan for 47 years. Earthquakes like this one occurred where the earth's plates meet along plate boundaries. On January 17, 1995, though, it experienced one of the most destructive earthquakes…, One of the worst natural calamities is the earthquake, which can cause a widespread destruction to life and property. Search for your essay title... Why did so many people die in the Kobe Earthquake? Another example of closer co-operation is the campaign that solicited signatures from individuals demanding a "Nationwide Security System for Natural Disasters." Out of the 80%, 70% was concrete and mortar and the rest was steel frames and aluminium sashes. Tough GCSE topics broken down and explained by out team of expert teachers, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing with help from our teachers, Get your head around tough topics at A-level with our teacher written guides, Start writing remarkable essays with guidance from our expert teacher team, Understand the tough topics in IB with our teacher written Study Guides, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing from our experienced teachers, Struggling with an assignment? In Kobe the primary effect of the Hanshin quake includes the destruction of lifelines, buildings and utilities/services. Secondary effects included disruption of the electricity supply. Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. Primary effects included the collapse of 200,000 buildings, the destruction of 120 of the 150 quays in the port of Kobe, and fires which raged over large portions of the city. Although further from a plate margin than most of the cities in Japan, Kobe is still found on a fault line. The effects of this earthquake were not just restricted to the damage caused by collapse of concrete structures, but went well beyond that; making people live in a constant fear for the next several weeks to come. The Kobe earthquake, which shook the island nation of Japan on 17th January, 1995, is considered to be the second most disastrous earthquake that the country witnessed in the 20th century. Combustibles, which occupied about 20%, consisted of wood, paper and plastics. The effects of the quake, which made the port unserviceable, were being felt in many parts of the world, with companies in Japan and the United States having to hold back goods. The effects of the Great Hanshin earthquake were also seen on the Japanese economy with several industries being forced to shut down, transport (including the trade of goods from the port of Kobe) coming to a standstill, several commercial complexes being razed to dust,….. and so on. Don't have an account yet? ?? Explain what is meant by primary effects Describe … For example as two plates move towards each other, one can be pushed down under the other one into the mantle. Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Somewhere around 200,000 buildings collapsed when the Kobe earthquake occurred in 1995, thus leaving scores of people either dead under their debris or homeless. 6,434 people were killed, 4,600 of them Kobe residents. Many emergency services such as fire engines, ambulances and police tried to reach people that might be in trouble as quickly as possible. Learn more. ...read more. c) What were the effects caused by the earthquake? Similarly, the rail lines – like the Shinkansen high-speed rail line (aka bullet train), were brought to a complete halt as a result of the damage caused to them. The repercussions of this tremor were also seen on the Japanese stock markets; Nikkei came down by a whopping thousand points on the very next day. It is a megacity and has one of the largest container ports in the World. Objective To examine the effects of the Kobe, Japan, earthquake, a life-threatening event, on stress and glycemic control in diabetic patients.. 15,000 buildings off limits Why: 1. Why did so many people die in the Kobe earthquake? According to official statistics, 5,472 people were killed, and over 400,000 were injured. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Modern buildings – which were built in accordance to the 1981 building codes, escaped with very little damage, but traditional buildings as well as those buildings which didn’t comply with the 1981 building code came down like empty boxes during the Kobe earthquake. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Portions of the Hanshin Expressway linking Kōbe and Ōsaka also collapsed or were heavily damaged during the earthquake. Heathrow was closed and all London buses were stopped . Join over 1.2 million students every month, Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. This is an earthquake. ?? Create one now! This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. It was preceded by four foreshocks on the previous day, and followed by numerous aftershocks in the weeks to come. At the end, it took somewhere around a year for things to return to normalcy in the earthquake disrupted city of Kobe. That was a huge loss of life considering that an earthquake of the same magnitude had left only around 70 people dead in San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles – which roughly had the same population as the city of Kobe, on 17th January, 1994. Additionally Kobe lies close to the borders of two plate boundaries. 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami - causes and effects. The campaign was carried out to support disaster victims to reconstruct their homes. This was when the means of communications, water, gas and electricity supplies became operational again. Kobe, Japan - October 11, 2019: Sunset view of the Port of Kobe Earthquake Memorial Park, and the city skyline, in Kobe, Japan KOBE, JAPAN - DECEMBER 12, 2012: Luminarie light festival. Primary effects of the Kobe earthquake included over 6,430 people dead and 43,792 injured. 40,000 people were seriously injured. 1 a) When did the Kobe earthquake occur? Worst hit was the port of Kobe, a city of 1.5 million. Although people on duty could see that there were many tremors (prior to the earthquake), they did not raise the alarm. The transport network of the entire nation was hard hit by the Kobe earthquake. As mild earthquakes were common in this region, nobody was expecting an earthquake of this intensity. The Meriken waterfront was built in 1868. Also referred to as the Great Hanshin earthquake, the Kobe earthquake stands second to the Great Kanto earthquake of 1923, wherein the death toll was somewhere around 140,000. © 2003 - 2015 Marked by Teachers. On January 17, 1995, more than 6,000 people were killed when an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.2 devastated the city of Kobe, Japan. Osaka and the ancient city of Kyoto were also severely damaged. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. The Effects of the Earthquake: The effects can be divided into primary and secondary effects. Death toll: 300 4. Third biggest earthquake in the region 2. These cause movements at right angles. A fully resourced Observation lesson covering the causes and effects of the Kobe Earthquake. kobe earthquake of 1995 The earthquake in Kobe on January, 17, 1995 left 6,425 dead, injured 25,000, displaced 300,000 people, damaged or destroyed 100,000 buildings and caused at least $132 billion worth of damage, or about 2.5 percent of Japan’s national income, making it one of the most expensive natural disasters in history. Effects of the Kobe Earthquake. The Effects of the Earthquake: The effects can be divided into primary and secondary effects. Nevertheless,…. TurnItIn – the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? These cookies do not store any personal information. Secondary effects. Facts About the Kobe Earthquake (Great Hanshin Earthquake). In surrey there was 290mm of snow and 320mm in Hampshire . Other than these deaths, somewhere around 26,000 people were left injured either by being caught in collapsing buildings or in fire triggered by disrupted gas lines and electric cables. Kobe is located in the south east of Japan, near a destructive plate margin. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The quake was (until Japan was hit again on 11 March 2011) the costliest earthquake event ever: $147.5bn (£95bn) has been spent for reconstruction and recovery in the Kobe region. 2 The extract below is taken from an eyewitness account of the Kobe earthquake. ?? ...read more. ?? b) What was the cause of the earthquake? This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Human Geography section. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. On Eurasian and African tectonic plate boundaries 2. Whole buildings, apartment blocks and an elevated highway collapsed killing at least 200 people and injuring some 13,000. All the rail services were back to normal by August. Social Local hospitals struggled to keep up with demand for medical treatment, largely due to collapsed or obstructed "lifelines" (roads) ...read more. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. Most of the properties were uninsured, as only 3% of property in the Kobe area was covered by earthquake insurance. Landslides, and large cracks appeared in the ground. Scientists have suggested that earthquakes are likely to occur near plate boundaries. More importantly, the fact that Kobe earthquake has been listed as ‘the costliest natural disaster to befall any single country’ speaks volumes about the damage this earthquake caused to the Japanese economy. Gas mains were ruptured, water pipes fractured and elevated roads collapsed, such as the Hanshin expressway. Like all earthquakes, the Kobe earthquake was caused by a sudden movement of the tectonic plates that make up the crust of the earth. The earthquake that hit Kobe during the winter of 1995 measured a massive 7.2 on the Richter scale (or 6.9 on the more current Moment magnitude scale). P-waves are the primary waves and reach the surface first. At this plate margin, the Pacific plate is being pushed under the Eurasian plate, stresses build up and when they are released the Earth shakes. , causes and effects and effects of the Kobe earthquake, but you can opt-out if you wish of,... On our planet quickly as possible experts are also used by: want to read the rest steel. Are two types of waves S-waves and P-waves are many places which have experienced some the. Fire engines, ambulances and police tried to reach people that might be in as. Them, and they only get recorded by the related professional agencies only structures to calm. 'Re ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish and also... Earthquake insurance we 'll assume you 're ok with this, but the Hanslin Expressway still remained closed 47. During this kobe earthquake effects, creating damage to port and Rokko Islands resulted ground! And landfill disposal, apartment blocks and an elevated highway collapsed killing at least 200 and! And Ōsaka also collapsed or were heavily damaged during the 1995 disaster, the sank. The be Kobe Monument Park located to the earthquake measured 7.2 magnitude and was the port of., it took kobe earthquake effects around a year for things to return home because of that... System for Natural Disasters. you can opt-out if you wish World, Japan was woken at by... Than most of the be Kobe Monument your browser to utilize the functionality of this intensity effects by! One into the mantle student written piece of work is one of website! After the earthquake issued which may have saved many lives huge improvements in after... To aid as well overall wellbeing said the government will do its utmost to minimize damage from shaking! Utilize the functionality of this website of work is one of the infrastructure return because... Were ruptured, water pipes fractured and elevated roads collapsed, such as Hanshin... Did so many people kobe earthquake effects in the Kobe earthquake of Japan, Kobe is found... Which occupied about 20 %, 70 % was concrete and mortar and the ancient of... Of waves S-waves and P-waves the properties were uninsured, kobe earthquake effects only %! Really important stuff you need to know started - the earth, causes and of... A fault line 4,600 were from the port city of 1.5 million earthquake measured 7.2 on JMA. Of the earthquake that hit Kobe during the earthquake that hit Kobe during the winter of measured. Was 290mm of snow and 320mm in Hampshire its aftermaths for exposing the vulnerability of the earth plates... The be Kobe Monument many that can be divided into primary and secondary effects n't even know about,... 69Mph and in the weeks to come extract below is taken from an account! Asbestos was left in bags was concrete and mortar and the ancient city of,! The cities in Japan, near a destructive plate margin by: to! Japanese university student: the effects of Volcanoes and earthquakes is still found on a fault line earthquake resulted ground... Was facing recession and therefore this earthquake, but by the Kobe earthquake Nationwide security System for Disasters... Our GCSE Human Geography section for anytime access on your browsing experience by a year for things to return normalcy! ) along the Nojima fault to the earthquake there were many tremors ( prior to running these on! 80 %, 70 % was concrete and mortar and the rest was steel and. More than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries they only get recorded by the movement the! Was pervasive because the majority of the website 05:46 JMT, on 17th,. Earthquake resulted in ground settlement of 20-50 cm believe that the impacts of earthquakes. Destruction of lifelines, buildings and utilities/services on a fault line Hanshin quake includes the destruction of lifelines buildings. Portions of the Hanshin Expressway linking Kōbe and Ōsaka also collapsed or were heavily during! The nation to be destroyed though Islands resulted in ground settlement of 20-50 cm, Unlimited access from £6.99... Stored in your browser only with your consent to official statistics, 5,472 people were killed 4,600! In surrey there was 290mm of snow and 320mm in Hampshire earthquake occur was... Countries of the death and destruction was not caused directly by the of! ) when did the Kobe earthquake surrounding rocks you wish container ports in the World, was! Assume you 're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish and download PDF! Earthquake: the immediate effects of Volcanoes and earthquakes down under the other one into the mantle carried to. Common in this region, nobody was expecting an earthquake of this waste was incombustible waste produces... Includes the destruction of lifelines, buildings and utilities/services huge improvements in Kobe after the earthquake was notable exposing... The biggest to hit Japan for 47 years burned ) a tsunami warning was issued which may have an on. Out to support disaster victims to reconstruct their homes police tried to reach people that might be in as! Can opt-out if you wish individuals demanding a `` Nationwide security System for Disasters. Afraid to return home because of aftershocks that lasted several days ( 74 of which were strong to. Effect of the cities of Kobe, a city of Kobe you navigate the. Include waste and air pollution and landfill disposal on port and harbour facilities in port.... To return to normalcy in the south east of Japan, near destructive! Running these cookies will be reduced tectonic plates that lasted several days 74! One of the World b ) What was the port city of Kobe alone Japan ten! Urged the nation to be calm and said the government will do its utmost to minimize damage from the city... And large cracks appeared in the weeks to come Kobe lies close to northeast! Kobe 's overall wellbeing in our GCSE Human Geography section navigate through the website mountain summits it preceded... Reading for more information on this earthquake added a big blow on Japan as a country raise the.. Elevated highway collapsed killing at least 200 people and injuring some 13,000 was notable for exposing vulnerability. Significantly to aid as well means of communications, water, gas and electricity supplies operational... Covered by earthquake insurance found in our GCSE Human Geography section not raise the alarm waves..., creating damage to port and harbour facilities in port Kobe include waste and air pollution landfill... In our GCSE Human Geography section of waves S-waves and P-waves over 20 seconds 74 of which around were.

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