Nephthys was the Egyptian god of divine assistance, and is closely associated with death and mourning the dead. As one of… She also sometimes represented Lower Egypt along with Ptah-Tanen. Relatives She was also one of five children in her family. Her Egyptian name means “The Lady of the House”, with house here signifying a holy place like a temple of the house of god in the sky. Thus we find Nephthys endowed with the epithet "Nephthys of the Bed of Life"[17] in direct reference to her regenerative priorities on the embalming table. The cult-image's inscription originally pertained to "Nephthys, Foremost of the Sed [Festival] in the Booth of Annals" (at Medinet-Habu), but was re-inscribed or re-dedicated to "Nephthys, Foremost of the [Booths of] Herakleopolis". The basalt image originally was stationed at Medinet-Habu as part of the cultic celebration of the pharaonic "Sed-Festival", but was transferred at some point to Herakleopolis and the temple of Herishef. She was also the goddess of night, rivers, sleep and nature too. Nephthys also serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus. fourth child born to the god of the earth and the goddess of the sky Together, the two sisters represented the “wailing women” that were an integral part of the Egyptian funerary rites.7 In this role, Nephthys was given the name "Nephthys-Kheresket" and a wealth of temple texts from Edfu, Dendera, Philae, Kom Ombo, El Qa'la, Esna, and others corroborate the late identification of Nephthys as the supreme goddess of Upper Egyptian Nome VII, where another shrine existed in honor of the Bennu. Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliterated as Nebet-hut, Nebet-het, Nebt-het, from Egyptian nbt-ḥwt). She married her brother Seth and had a son named Anubis. Her parents are the egyptian god and goddess, Nut and Geb. They dressed like Isis and Nephthys, shaved their hair, wore lamb’s wool wigs, and beat on tambourines while they chanted hymns to the god. Nephthys is the goddess of death, darkness, and the protector of souls. 6, 46; C. Traunecker, Le temple d'El-Qal'a. Nephthys. Less well understood than her sister Isis, Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian religion as confirmed by the work of E. Hornung[11] along with the work of several noted scholars. [6], As the primary "nursing mother" of the incarnate pharaonic god, Horus, Nephthys also was considered to be the nurse of the reigning pharaoh himself. Nephthys's healing skills and status as direct counterpart of Isis, steeped, as her sister in "words of power", are evidenced by the abundance of faience amulets carved in her likeness and by her presence in a variety of magical papyri that sought to summon her famously altruistic qualities to the aid of mortals.[19]. Nephthys 'Lady of the Mansion' Appearance: Woman with headdress showing her name in hieroglyphs. She was the fourth born after Osiris, Isis, and Set and was the older sister of Horus (usually referred to as Horus the Elder). This title, which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name, probably indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. [26] In most cases, Nephthys found her typical place as part of a triad alongside Osiris and Isis, Isis and Horus, Isis and Min, or as part of a quartet of deities. Nephthys is the goddess of protection and Set's former wife. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the (re-)birth experience. To Nephthys, great friend of the dead, I offer my praise. Anubis is a God and Lord of the dead in the film Gods of Egypt. This entrance way symbolized the horizon or akhet. While certainly affiliated with the "House of Set", the Nephthys temple at Sepermeru and its apportioned lands (several acres) clearly were under administration distinct from the Set institution. After making an introductory appeal to "Re-Horakhte, Set, and Nephthys" for the ultimate resolution of this issue by the royal Vizier, the prophet (named Pra'emhab) laments his workload. He married his sister, Isis, and they ruled as king and queen. Levai notes that while Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity's marriage, there is very little specifically linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian sources. Classic art reinvented with a … Nephthys Nephthys was one of the original five gods of ancient Egypt born of the union of Geb (earth) and Nut (sky) after the creation of the world. Nephthys was attested as one of the four "Great Chiefs" ruling in the Osirian cult center of Busiris in the Delta[15] and she appears to have occupied an honorary position at the holy city of Abydos. Nephthys ("Lady of the House") is a Goddess of death, night, and lamentation. Their brother Set was the god of the desert and storms. She is the sister and wife of Set and the mother of Anubis. Though her siblings developed cults of worship, Nephthys had no such cult. A near life-sized statue of Nephthys (currently housed in the Louvre) boasts a curiously altered inscription. She is not exactly the personification of death, but she is the closest thing to it in Egyptian belief. 19th Dynasty (1292-1186 BCE). She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. Gods of Egypt is a 2016 fantasy action film directed by Alex Proyas based on the ancient Egyptian deities.It stars Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Gerard Butler, Brenton Thwaites, Chadwick Boseman, Élodie Yung, Courtney Eaton, Rufus Sewell and Geoffrey Rush.The film portrays a mortal Egyptian hero who partners with the Egyptian god Horus to save the world from Set and rescue his love. She also gives support to the souls of the dead as they embark on their journey to the afterlife. The Papyrus Bologna records a complaint lodged by a prophet of the temple of Set in that town regarding undue taxation in his regard. This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis which was renowned for its "House of the Bennu" temple. She is a sister of Osiris, Horus, Isis, and Seth. This fits well with more general textual themes that consider Nephthys to be a goddess whose unique domain was darkness or the perilous edges of the desert. The Ramesside pharaohs were particularly devoted to Set's prerogatives and, in the 19th Dynasty, a temple of Nephthys called the "House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun" was built or refurbished in the town of Sepermeru, midway between Oxyrhynchos and Herakleopolis, on the outskirts of the Fayyum and quite near to the modern site of Deshasheh. She is depicted with crown hieroglyph representing a house, usually with a basket, and sometimes she is represented by the hawk. … back to menu ↑ Nephthys as a Guardian of the Dead. Nephthys is the daughter of Nut, sister of Isis and wife of Seth, the god of disorder.Her loyalties, however, lay with Osiris, by whom she had a child, Anubis.When Seth found out who the father was, he murdered Osiris, and Nephthys joined Isis in the search for Osiris's body. Biographical information Nephthys was the daughter of the sky goddess, Nut, and the earth god, Geb. Nephthys or Nebet-Het in ancient Egyptian (Greek: Νέφθυς) was a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. Nephthys also was the goddess of the "Mansion of the Sistrum" in Hwt-Sekhem (Gr. An ancient Egyptian myth preserved in the Papyrus Westcar recounts the story of Isis, Nephthys, Meskhenet, and Heqet as traveling dancers in disguise, assisting the wife of a priest of Amun-Re as she prepares to bring forth sons who are destined for fame and fortune. Nephthys assisted Isis in resurrecting Osiris, who had been murdered by Set. Egyptian Goddesses, like Nephthys, were always depicted as young, beautiful and healthy. Nephthys could also appear as one of the goddesses who assists at childbirth. The Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the "birth-mother" and to Nephthys as the "nursing-mother" of Horus. Set cut off her wings and presumably killed her. She is a very ancient goddess, first found in Old Kingdom writings. Nephthys is a consolatory deity who comforts and advises those left behind when someone passes on. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead. Aliases Nephthys thus conceived her son, the jackal-headed god Anubis. Transliterated as Nebet-hut, Nebet-Het or Nebt-Het, the name is usually said the mean “Lady of the House.” This translation has given rise to the misinterpretation of her role as a domestic goddess or patroness of housewives. Anubis was a jackal and watched over the dead. "Nephthys and Seth: Anatomy of a Mythical Marriage", Paper presented at The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, Wyndham Toledo Hotel, Toledo, Ohio, Apr 20, 2007. The same divine power could be applied later to all of the dead, who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. [20] The Nephthys temple was a unique establishment in its own right, an independent entity. She is the sister of Isis and companion of the war-like deity, Set. Nephthys, as the active creative power which protected Osiris, the Moon-god, was called Menkhet, and in allusion to her beneficent acts in connection with him the names of Benra-merit and Kherseket were bestowed upon her; and the former appears to belong to the goddess when she made herself manifest under the form of a cat. As sister of Isis and especially Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the birth experience. No cult is attested for her there, though she certainly figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted, wherein two chosen females or priestesses played the roles of Isis and Nephthys and performed the elaborate "Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys". [3][4] Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Bastet[5] or Isis. Physical description Nephthys is the daughter of Geb (the god of the Earth) and Nut (the goddess of the sky). He is voiced and motion captured by Goran D. Kleut. In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys was the daughter of Geb (Earth) and Nut (sky) and the sister of Isis. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites[1] because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. After Set was defeated, Ra resurrected those who were killed by Set, including Nephthys. She is a daughter of Nut and Geb and wife of Set. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. ISIS, Mistress of Magic. Nonetheless, Nephthys had a son, Anubis, by Osiris who was seduced by Nephthys after she got him drunk. After Horus was thrown to exile, gods who stood in Set's way were killed or presumably enslaved. [citation needed]. Statuette of the Goddess Nephthys, Third Intermediate Period–Late Period, Dynasty 21–31 (about 1069–332 BC), Egyptian, Egypt, Bronze, 8.3 × 1.6 × 1.3 cm (3 1/4 × 5/8 × 1/2 in. According to Papyrus Wilbour,[21] another "House of Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun" seems to have existed to the north, in the town of Su, closer to the Fayyum region. As a mortuary goddess like Isis, Neith, and Serqet, Nephthys was one of the protectresses of the canopic jars of Hapi. According to myth, Nephthys was the daughter of Geb and Nut, the sister of Osiris and Isis, and the sister and wife of Seth. In texts of the period of the Old Kingdom (c. 2613 - c. 2181 BCE) she is referenced with Set as the two gods who protect the barge of the sun god Ra (Atum) as it passes through the night sky. A "prophet of Nephthys" is indeed attested for the town of Herakleopolis in the 30th Dynasty. Elsewhere at Edfu, for example, Nephthys is a goddess who gives the pharaoh power to see "that which is hidden by moonlight". Nephthys was a guardian and protector of the deceased. In the tomb of Tuthmosis III, Nephthys is said to be the Lady of the Bed of Life, by which was meant the embalming table. She was a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis as the daughter of Geb and Nut and the sister of Osiris, Isis, and Horus, as well as the sister and wife of Set. "Ascend and descend; descend with Nephthys, sink into darkness with the Night-bark. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary deity Anubis (Inpu) in some myths. Despite having the same lofty origins as her brothers and sisters, Nephthys was only ever a supporting character in Egyptian mythology. [23], There can be little doubt that a cult of Nephthys existed in the temple and great town of Herakleopolis, north of Sepermeru. [7] Though other goddesses could assume this role, Nephthys was most usually portrayed in this function. Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Bennu bird. God Diospolis Parva), the chief city of Nome VII. Nephthys was most widely and usually worshiped in ancient Egypt as part of a consortium of temple deities. Throughout Egyptian mythology, Nephthys was always the counterpart to Seth. Set (Former Husband)Osiris (Former Brother in Law)Horus (Former Nephew) She was, almost without fail, depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name, which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure (ḥwt) along with the sign for nb or mistress (lady) on top of the enclosure sign.[13]. Nephthys was important in ancient Egyptian culture because the afterlife was highly valued in ancient Egypt. "[22], As "Nephthys of Ramesses-Meriamun", the goddess and her shrines were under the particular endorsement of Ramesses II. Relevés des scènes et des textes. Description: Nephthys is the sister of Osiris and Isis and the wife of Set. The fields and other holdings belonging to Nephthys's temple were under the authority of two Nephthys prophets (named Penpmer and Merybarse) and one (mentioned) wa'ab priest of the goddess. Sauneron, Elephantine, Beitrage Bf. She was associated with mourning, the night/darkness, service (specifically temples), childbirth, the dead, protection, magic, health, embalming, and beer. Nephthys and Set had Anubis, the lord and deity of the Underworld. Ascend and descend; ascend with Isis, rise with the Day-bark." This role may have stemmed from an early association in her native Heliopolis which was renowned for its "House of the Bennu" temple. Throughout Egyptian history various reasons were given for Set’s hatred of Osiris, including a kick or an affair with Set’s consort, Nephthys. Nephthys grieved for the lost god along with Isis, and their friendship was restored; because of this myth, Nephthys and Isis became known as the Weeping Sisters. During the Second Sundering, Nephthys and other deities from the pantheon returned in the form of demigods and led the Mulhorandi uprising against the Imaskari, in a manner similar to how the Chosen manifested in other regions. From the Tomb of Nefertari in the Valley of the Queens. In the city of Memphis, Nephthys was duly honored with the title "Queen of the Embalmer's Shop" and there associated with the jackal-headed god Anubis as patron.[18]. This was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period, where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler.[14]. Along with her sister Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which also displayed the flagstaff. Though it commonly has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis, recent Egyptological research has called this into question. Thebes, Egypt. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. The god Khnum standing between the twin goddesses Isis and Nephthys. Set (Former Husband) Nephthys Nephthys had a quite large family. To be certain, the House of Nephthys was one of fifty individual, land-owning temples delineated for this portion of the Middle Egyptian district in Papyrus Wilbour. Salle des offrandes 1 à 112, Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Nephthys,,, Articles with incomplete citations from March 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 16:37. Her following is referenced in texts that date back as far as the Old Kingdom. [8][9], New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs, in particular, were enamored of Mother Nephthys as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor, where Nephthys was a member of that great city's Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex.[10]. 6, 46 n.d. Traunecker, Karnak VII, 184 n. 2; Cauville, 'Essai,' 152 n.7, James P. Allen, Peter Der Manuelian, 'The Pyramid Texts' SBL, 2005. Set confronted Nephthys who tried using her wings to fly away but Set grabbed on to Nephthys' wing and threw her to the ground. She argues that the later evidence suggests that: while Nephthys's marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology, it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. Nephthys was a protective goddess of the dead. Nephthys was normally portrayed as a young woman, wearing a headdress in the shape of a house and basket. Sanctuaire nord. ), Reimagined by Gibon, design of warm cheerful glowing of brightness and light rays radiance. [2] These late ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. Levai, Jessica. [24], Nephthys was considered the unique protectress of the Bennu bird. Nephthys was clearly viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition, i.e., the pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. Nephthys was the sister of Isis and Osiris, and the sister/wife of Seth. There, Nephthys was the primary protectress of the resident Osirian relic, of the Bennu Bird, and of the local Horus/Osiris manifestation, the god Neferhotep.[25]. She is the sister of Osiris, and Isis. In various reliefs at Edfu, Dendera, and Behbeit, Nephthys is depicted receiving lavish beer offerings from the pharaoh which she would "return" using her power as a beer goddess "that [the pharaoh] may have joy with no hangover". Species I' Sanctuaire central. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Nut and Geb. Later Seth murdered and dismembered Osiris. After Horus was thrown to exile, gods who stood in Set's way were killed or presumably enslaved. It was basically about the murder of god Osiris, a primaeval king of Egypt and after that how he was resurrected. The foundations of the Set and Nephthys temples at Sepermeru finally were discovered and identified in the 1980s and the Nephthys temple was a self-sustaining temple complex within the Set enclosure. As of 1489 DR, Mulhorand was led by the returned pantheon, who temporarily set their differences aside for the good of the Mulho… Here, as Papyrus Wilbour notes in its wealth of taxation records and land assessments, the temple of Nephthys was a specific foundation by Ramesses II, located in close proximity to (or within) the precinct of the enclosure of Set.

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