The first is the notion of a particular color associated with skin. CLICK HERE to read 2 Nephi 14.. The opposite of “delightsome” is “loathsome.” The term “loathsome is paired with “dark” in 1 Nephi 12:23 and is the reason for the cursing in 2 Nephi 5:22. In contrast, ancient society saw reality as communally related. The tree’s whiteness symbolizes righteousness or heavenliness. 3 Nephi 19:24–25 records another similar white/whiter occurrence during Jesus’s visit to the New World: The disciples’ transforming spiritual experience makes them become “as white as the countenance and also the garments of Jesus.” This shade is not a natural skin color nor does anything in this passage encourage a “natural” interpretation. First, the greater fulfillment of the prophecy centers in Jesus Christ, who was Immanuel, the son of the virgin Mary. The possibilities range from simple description to metaphorical value judgments. (See commentary accompanying Jacob 3:3.). Alma 3:6 is the closest thing in the text to evidence for pigmentation change: “And the skins of the Lamanites were dark, according to the mark which was set upon their fathers, which was a curse upon them because of their transgression and their rebellion against their brethren, who consisted of Nephi, Jacob, and Joseph, and Sam, who were just and holy men.” This verse clearly indicates that Lamanite skin was dark and that it “mark[ed]” them, thus denoting some visible indication. According to Speiser, this mark is the letter taw, and none of the examples he cites refer to skin color. In 1 Nephi 12:23, Nephi prophesies: “And I beheld, after they had dwindled in unbelief they became a dark, and loathsome, and a filthy people.” This is a reference to the Lamanites who survive the wars that destroy the Nephites (1 Ne. 5:21, 4 Ne. . 2 Nephi 7. …and the Lamanites, which are not filthy like unto you, nevertheless they are cursed with a sore cursing, shall scourge you even unto destruction. I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls. And thus saith the Lord God: “I will cause that they shall be loathsome unto thy people, save they shall repent of their iniquities. Therefore, the Nephites do not become black. The second part of this verse indicates that, after the curse, another sign was placed upon the Lamanites that allowed for a separation between the Lamanites and Nephites. The Nephites could not have survived without a wider range of marriage partners than the very small number of lineal Lehites who were in the city. The Romans used a chalk-based compound to lighten their skins to further this perceived difference. The use of “mark” quotes Genesis 4:15, stating that God set a mark on Cain. With the Arabs, to be white of countenance is to be blessed and to be black of countenance is to be cursed; there are parallel expressions in Hebrew and Egyptian.”, Why should a metaphor of color describe the skin or face if it does not refer to pigmentation? The group was the meaning, and individuals who did not conform were considered deviant. 2 Nephi 23. 2 Nephi 28. It is not intended to be a physical description. All refer to identifying letters. Who gave these great doctrinal discourses? This was done so that the righteous would not intermarry with the wicked and thereby adopt their wicked ways. “get around” - No one does that, excepting, perhaps the apologists to which Mr. Karanja is referring. That's the message I get from this verse. Enos. The Book of Mormon is indeed prejudiced against the Lamanites. Once they are Nephites, they are fully and wholly Nephites, incorporating all of the “good” qualities of Nephites. A color difference should have immediately been apparent to the guards, but they do not notice the discrepancy. Saying that any Amerindian has a black skin is incorrect even in modern skin color nomenclature. 2 Nephi 16. 11:35). As… As a result, "he was filled with the Spirit, and began to prophesy" (1 Nephi 5:17). Lamentations 4:7–8 (Revised English Version), ascribes metaphorical color to capture the before/after conditions of the Babylonian captivity: Obviously no pigmentation change occurred as the “white” faces of the princes became “blacker than soot.” Here are two other examples: The metaphor can also use “skin”: “When I looked for good, then evil came unto me: and when I waited for light, there came darkness. Their prejudices ran deeper and broader, as Malina and Neyrey explain: “In their assessment of their fellow human beings, elite ancients utilized a set of fixed categories, each with a limited range of descriptive, distinct features.… It is important to note that these categories were regularly presented. About 588–570 B.C. Lehi concluded that the scriptures "were desirable; yea, even of great worth" (1 Nephi 5:21). 22 And thus … For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, that they had become like unto a flint; wherefore as they were white, and exceedingly fair and delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my people the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them. 25 Adam fell that men might be; and men are, that they might have joy. Malina and Neyrey continue: “When considering a person, the ancients thought that there was really nothing inside that did not register on the outside.” In this conception of humanity, the skin or face would be the logical location for spiritual characteristics to register. For example, Nephi utilized Isaiah 3:15 (= 2 Nephi 13:15) and Isaiah 5:21 (= 2 Nephi 15:21) in his commentary on the pride of latter-day Gentiles in 2 Nephi 26:20. It is as accurate when described in 2 Nephi as it is prophetically at the end of Nephite culture. 2 Nephi 1–4 contains Lehi’s final words as a patriarch to his posterity. 2 Nephi 29:11-12 This is a good reminder that we should be open to revelation and truth from many geographic sources, since the Lord speaks to people in "all nations of the earth," but it seems to also be a very strong encouragement to us to write down our spiritual experiences. The purpose of the curse was to separate the two peoples. Then they began at the ancient men which were before the house.”. What can we say about how the “skin of blackness” was perceived by those who wrote our Book of Mormon? The full verse: "And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. Note how Jacob uses the “filthy” label that accompanies “dark” in 1 Nephi 12:23 Mormon 5:15: “But, wo, wo, unto you that are not pure in heart, that are filthy this day before God; for except ye repent the land is cursed for your sakes; and the Lamanites, which are not filthy like unto you, nevertheless they are cursed with a sore cursing, shall scourge you even unto destruction” (Jacob 3:3). This so-called principle of excluded middle was the prevailing logic.”, Each ancient culture usually saw itself as the center of the universe—the norm, the standard, the “good.” Using the logic of the excluded middle, “others” must be bad. The use of that skin color to make cultural assumptions about race is social. Possessing the mark cannot prove that the curse is skin color, because that would beg the very question that needs to be proved. When they are insiders, they are “delightsome,” available as marriage partners. However, there were also provisions for marriage outside of the tribe. For example, 3 Nephi 2:14–15 reads: “And it came to pass that those Lamanites who had united with the Nephites were numbered among the Nephites; And their curse was taken from them, and their skin became white like unto the Nephites.”. They are called “red.” It should be recognized, however, that they are not “red.” Those whose skin is called “white” are also not white. This barrier is very clearly a religio-political one, because it specifically forbids intermarriage. Thus, Nephi can claim that the Lamanites are cursed because they fall under that foundational prophecy of the land which included both a blessing and a curse, according to righteousness. Mormon’s following statement, which shows how the curse of the Lamanites also came upon the Amlicites, is an obvious and extensive utilization of 2 Nephi 5:21–24.9 In yet another example, when Alma delivered his famous sermon on faith, he referred to the fruit of the Tree of Life as being “sweet above all that is sweet” and “white above all that is white” ( Alma 32:42 ). She noticed the elders’ countenances change and sadness come over them. It prohibited a particular city or land, based on the location of the other descendants of Lehi. John W. Welch Notes 2 Nephi 1 2 Nephi 1:1 — Lehi Gathers His Posterity to Teach and Bless Them. 12:19–20). 2 Nephi 5:21-23; “And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. Indeed, it is much easier to compile a list of writers who take the phrase literally than of those who suggest an alternate reading. Scripture Mastery. Israelites also shared this widespread prejudice against “others,” as Malina and Neyrey point out: “First-century members of the house of Israel felt concerning all other peoples the way the Greeks felt about barbarians.”. And the Lord spake it, and it was done.”. See pp. After Lehi's sons obtained the brass plates and brought them to their father in the wilderness, Lehi searched them to understand their contents. Hence, both from proximity and from familiarity of customs, they might make attractive marriage partners except that their religion was not Yahweh’s. 2 Nephi 21. This chapter explains the role of the Book of Mormon in the latter days. The Lamanites do not become righteous, they become comparatively righteous because of Nephite wickedness. It is not significantly different from ascribing emotion to the heart, which is an organ having no biological relevance to emotions at all. What is the “mark” in the Book of Mormon? It would be seen as a prevention of apostasy, exactly like the prohibition against marrying Canaanites in the Old World. Jacob. As set forth in 2 Nephi 2 and 2 Nephi 9, discuss the three fundamental doctrines of the gospel, the creation, the fall, and the atonement. 2 Nephi 24. Malina and Neyrey describe this mentality for the ancient Mediterranean cultures: “Human beings are distinctive in that they exhibit a considerable range of physical shapes, hues, and structures. Furthermore, these descriptions of the Lamanites as the opposite of the Nephites vanish as soon as the Lamanites cross the outsider/insider boundary. 2 Nephi 8. Since the mark/curse can be removed by simply traversing that boundary, I conclude that it is unlikely that the mark or curse had anything to do with pigmentation. The cursing follows the people who work iniquity. This chapter compares to Isaiah 4.. The second is that Yahweh caused a skin of blackness to come upon them. How can Lamanites be whiter than the Nephites? Exogamy (marriage outside of the group) and the Lamanite Curse: There is not only a geographic division between the brothers and their families, but a moral and religious chasm as well. Yahweh changed the Lamanites from what they had been to what they had become. My skin is black upon me, and my bones are burned with heat” (Job 30:26–30). 2 Nephi 17. In order to remove the possibility that our assumptions are coloring our reading of the text, it is important to find locations in the text where the action of the text would create circumstances where a difference in pigmentation would be obvious. 1:7). Ezekiel 9:4–6 describes literally marking the forehead as a protection: “And the Lord said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof. Nephite prejudices were developed on distinctions more common to the ancient world and used reasons other than pigmentation. He provides no explanation for how this alteration occurs, other than to note that it comes through God. This assumption fails to explain (or counter) other passages in the Book of Mormon that still make a connection with “iniquity” and skin color. 2 Nephi 5. 2 Nephi 20. Before studying this chapter, please review the introductory commentary for 2 Nephi 26. 5:21). Although the fair/delightsome pair occurs twice (2 Ne. Reading the Text or Reading into the Text: When 2 Nephi 5:21 says, “The Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them,” the phrase has been interpreted quite literally as a change in skin pigmentation. It is the desire to right the wrongs which man has done to his brother.\" (George Matheson… 2 Nephi 32:9 -- On Praying Always "But behold, I say unto you that ye must pray always, and not faint; that ye must not perform any thing unto the Lord save in the first place ye shall pray unto the Father in the name of Christ, that he will consecrate thy performance unto thee, that thy performance may be for the welfare of thy soul." 2 Nephi 6. The function of the mark is social separation, but it is the same insider/outsider barrier already discussed. As to each principle, explain what happened, why it happened, and what would have resulted had it not occurred. 2 Nephi 11. The before/after relationship is “fair and delightsome”/“skin of blackness.” Both conditions are structural opposites. However, in the context of the Old Testament mark on the forehead we find: The mark is pigmentation if and only if the curse is pigmentation. 2 Nephi 31 . Modern society prefers to see differences as individualized and therefore prejudicial when applied to a group. Just as the white/black or fair/dark terms function along the insider/outsider boundary, so too does the delightsome/loathsome dichotomy describe social repercussions. “Fair and delightsome” contains no reference to either “skin” or “white.” It would be a mistake, however, to assume that their absence means they are not part of the oppositional pairing since they do appear in other contexts. READ: 2 Nephi 12:2-3 *SCRIPTURE INSIGHT: LeGrand Richards explained, “The word mountain is used in the scriptures in different allegorical or figurative senses. 2 Nephi 12. 2 Nephi 32. 2 Nephi 15. 2 Nephi 5:21 reads: And he had caused the cursing to come upon [the Lamanites], yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. Even metaphorically, the skin and face were legitimate locations for the “display” of these spiritual characteristics. Textual Evidence for Actual Skin Pigmentation: Does the Book of Mormon text contain events where distinguishing race by skin color becomes important? 2 Nephi 3. The logic of the passage relies upon the metaphorical use of the insider/outsider terminology to mean unrighteous/righteous. E. A. Speiser, an archaeologist and Old Testament scholar, suggests that Cain’s mark was like other protective marks in the Old Testament, all of which were signs on the forehead. Indeed, it is much easier to compile a list of writers who take the phrase literally than of those who suggest an alternate reading. The ancient world was actually quite prejudiced but did not necessarily base such prejudices upon skin color. One of the ways we can avoid being deceived by Satan can be found in 2 Nephi. We should not presume that their meanings are our meanings. Colors also have social meanings that are quite separate from describing the eye’s perception of light waves. They are based on some visual perception, but coalesce into large categories that reflect the human tendency to categorize people. It is conclusively untrue in Alma where the story of the Anti-Nephi-Lehies discusses the many cities of the Lamanites (Alma 23:9–15). In Elizabethan England and in earlier Roman culture, the dark skin was the sign of a common laborer, and the lighter, whiter skin the sign of nobility. 2 Nephi 2. That situation creates the need for a comparison, but since the Nephites cannot be “dark” the Lamanites by default become “whiter” than the Nephites. Had he been “black” in contrast to the “white” of the Nephites, his identity should have been readily apparent. Why the discrepancy in time? Underlying these biblical and Book of Mormon metaphors are the assumptions of the collectivist social world. While the term “Lamanite” became a political designation for all non-Nephites (Jacob 1:13–4), it included lineal Lamanites and the specific location where they settled. And to the others he said in mine hearing, Go ye after him through the city, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity: Slay utterly old and young, both maids, and little children, and women: but come not near any man upon whom is the mark; and begin at my sanctuary. They were not, however, based on skin color as has been part of the more modern U.S. culture. \"What is that special form of sin which Isaiah sees? Humans have certainly placed values on the color of one’s skin, but for most of history the value is social. Descriptions of Lamanites repeat the same stock phrases over time: Each quotation describes “how the Lamanites are.” While there is at least a possibility that the description was true when Nephi began this traditional stereotyping of the Lamanites, it was untrue by the time of Enos if not earlier. 2 Nephi 6:10 Jacob says that because of what the Jews did to Christ – they would be afflicted, scattered, smitten, and hated. 2 Nephi 19. 2 Nephi 14. Because they have become Nephites, they therefore “became white like unto the Nephites.” This shift in skin of blackness to skin became white on the basis of a change from outsider to insider explains why the first appearance of the idea of the curse on the Lamanites has a different inception than this mention in 2 Nephi 5:21. Because they would not accept such a gift from a Nephite, Moroni finds a Lamanite in his own troops, a former guard of the Lamanite king. Another example is the dark/white pairing from the 1830 first edition of 2 Nephi 30:6: “Their scales of darkness shall begin to fall from their eyes; and many generations shall not pass away among them, save they shall be a white and a delightsome people.” This verse parallels “fair and delightsome,” since “fair” and “white” are structural equivalents. 2. The metaphorical use of color terms echoes that of the Bible. The question of marriage is an important one, because Yahweh has now excluded a number of the potential marriage partners who might be seen as more desirable than the native populations because they are both racially and culturally similar to the Old World peoples among the Nephites. That is a not a simple task as we don’t have a wealth of information. 2 Nephi 26. The curse’s purpose is to set a social barrier between the two peoples. 2 Nephi 4. Alma 3:6 tells us that the mark was the curse (according to the mark which was set upon their fathers, which was a curse upon them), so the reference is circular. Racism in the Book of Mormon: The Book of Mormon is, in fact, racist, although not at all in the usual sense of the term. 2 Nephi 10. Before beginning with the text itself, it is important to clarify some facts that will help us sort the textual usage from our modern assumptions. Marking the forehead with paint appears to be sufficient to create an identifying “mark” that falls significantly short of altering body pigmentation. 2 Nephi 27 Isaiah 29. For example, 2 Nephi 5:21 still says: “And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. The Canaanites were not only the people who lived in the land before Israel conquered it, but they were also a people with a similar religion. Captain Moroni1, working to free Nephite prisoners, sends wine to their Lamanite guards, hoping to intoxicate them (Alma 55). 2 Nephi 27. Or, in other words, these attributes are in embryo and are to be gradually developed. Furthermore, on his mission to the guards, Nephites accompany him. There is only one clear example. Nibley stands on the metaphorical side of the issue, though he still suggests that exposure to the sun could create the “blackness.” With this much disagreement on a single phrase in the text, how can we know how it should be read? Even something like the Fall of Adam and Eve, which appears to be a failure and… The Lamanites are cursed, and cut off from God’s influence. A representative of this school of thought is Milton R. Hunter of the Council of the Seventy: For Elder Hunter, the change in the skin color is absolutely physical and remains a distinction throughout Book of Mormon history. 2 Nephi 31:4-7 If the Lamb of God, he being holy, should have need to be baptized by water, to fulfil all righteousness, how much more need have we, being unholy, to be baptized, yea, even by water! For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, that they had become like unto a flint; wherefore, as they were white, and exceedingly fair and delightsome, that they might not be enticing unto my people the Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them. There are two important aspects to this declaration. This referential gulf between intent and interpretation explains our tendency to read “skin of blackness” with modern racial overtones. The phrases describe a previous condition and its succeeding condition, pivoting upon causation. ☼ 2 Nephi 5:21–23, Jacob 3:3: And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. It echoes the promises and prophecies of Jacob in Genesis 49 to his posterity. 2 Nephi 9. 2 For I, Nephi, have not taught them many things concerning the manner of the Jews; ... [Nephi has explained Isaiah in reference to the geography using his knowledge of the land surrounding Jerusalem.] The two “colors” are considered to be opposites of each other. 2 Nephi 22. Asians are termed “yellow,” although they certainly do not have yellow skin. In order to understand the purposes of the Lord in this regard, it is useful to examine a similar situation as found in the Old … William Smith, a Bible scholar, notes: Because marriage dictated the flow of rights and properties, the legal problems of exogamy included regulations designed to keep land and goods inside the group. At the point Jacob addresses his people, he applies this outsider label to them directly to highlight their adoption of outsider practices. Accompanied by other Nephites, this soldier takes the wine to the guards, and Moroni1’s plan is successful. Rodney Turner, LDS professor of religion, attributes this pigmentation change to God’s direct and miraculous action: Along with the assumption that the skin pigmentation was darkened as part of the curse, there were many who also believed that the conversion of dark-skinned “Lamanites” to the gospel would lead to a physically whiter skin. Nibley observes: “This amazing coincidentia oppositorum is the clash of black and white. A contrasting reading is that the changed skin color does not involve a physical change in the pigmentation. This is the origin of the term “barbarian,” which the Greeks frequently used as a generic term for anyone who was not Greek and who was, therefore, inferior. Of significance is the fact that Moroni had to “search” for a Lamanite soldier. Redemption comes through the Holy Messiah—Freedom of choice (agency) is essential to existence and progression—Adam fell that men might be—Men are free to choose liberty and eternal life. 2 Nephi 1–5. 2 Nephi 25. The only explicit prohibition of marriage partners in the Old Testament thus precluded an attractive marriage pool, but did so on religious grounds. While there is a set of people whose skin can be very black, they are not native to the western hemisphere. This perceived difference was simply related to sun exposure, indicating whether the person was required to work outside for a living. And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. Reinforcing the insider/outsider // white/black concept is Jacob 3:8, comparing the Nephites unfavorably to the Lamanites: “Unless ye shall repent of your sins… their skins will be whiter than yours, when ye shall be brought with them before the throne of God.” This passage associates skin with color, in this case, white. There is no discrepancy. There are some keys that we should use, and the very first is to remember the dangers of reading ourselves into a text in ways that the text did not intend. Humans tend to make binary-opposed sets, of which black and white form a classic set. Even though it was written for a future audience, it was written in a time and manner that reflected the social constructions of the authors, not those of modern readers. This comparison of white/whiteness also occurs in Nephi’s description of the tree: “I looked and beheld a tree; and it was like unto the tree which my father had seen; and the beauty thereof was far beyond, yea, exceeding of all beauty; and the whiteness thereof did exceed the whiteness of the driven snow” (1 Ne. Nevertheless, in terms of righteousness, the Lamanites would be whiter. Veil (2 Nephi 31–33) ((Spencer, An Other Testament, 42. Two things happen to the Lamanites as a result of their “harden[ing] their hearts against him.” The first is that they are cursed. Obviously, the writer is not describing their skin color, but their spiritual state. 2 Nephi 30. Why should metaphorical righteousness/unrighteousness be manifest in a “color” of skin? Second Witness: Analytical & Contextual Commentary on the Book of Mormon, Vol. This reversal of the curse (not repeated here but “skin of blackness”) implies its opposite (articulated here): “skin became white.” The Lamanites have crossed the insider/outsider boundary, becoming those who were “united with the Nephites” and “numbered among” them. Here is the verse from the LDS 2 Nephi 5:21 And he had caused the cursing to come upon them, yea, even a sore cursing, because of their iniquity. Reading the Text or Reading into the Text: When 2 Nephi 5:21 says, “The Lord God did cause a skin of blackness to come upon them,” the phrase has been interpreted quite literally as a change in skin pigmentation. To skin color were frequently subject to either direct prohibitions or to regulations inheritance. 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