Sophia is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology. This was the Harmony that George Rapp had envisioned. The Rapps moved to Pennsylvania in 1803, and by 1805, The Harmony Society was official. [12] Rapp was very influenced by the writings of Jakob Böhme,[12] Philipp Jakob Spener, and Emanuel Swedenborg, among others. John George Rapp (German: Johann Georg Rapp; November 1, 1757 in Iptingen, Duchy of Württemberg – August 7, 1847 in Economy, Pennsylvania) was the founder of the religious sect called Harmonists, Harmonites, Rappites, or the Harmony Society. The Indiana Territory The original idea of Harmony as an agricultural community quickly faded as … Rapp believed that the events and wars going on in the world at the time were a confirmation of his views regarding the imminent Second Coming of Christ, and he also viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist. [1][2][3] In 1798, Rapp and his group of followers had further distanced themselves from mainstream society. L�*. Rapp was the second child and oldest son of the family. They started a community in Butler County, Pennsylvania. Johann Georg Rapp was born on November 1, 1757, to Rosine Berger and Hans Adam Rapp (1720–71) in the village of Iptingen, 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Stuttgart in the Duchy of Württemberg. 0000001379 00000 n 0000001773 00000 n Christopher L. Hill is an assistant professor in the department of anthropology at Boise State University, Boise, Idaho. Contrary to Roebling's here rather superficial report, Rapp's followers included many highly in-telligent and cultured persons who greatly admired him and stood by him loyally through the Leon crisis. Owen had a very hard time acknowledging that there was a failure at New Harmony. 5. 0000004122 00000 n It was a cooperative society based upon the idea of unity. ֬Bg�R]�V�]���,p Rapp and his group also practiced forms of Esoteric Christianity, Mysticism (Christian mysticism), and Rapp often spoke of the virgin spirit or Goddess named Sophia in his writings. Contemporary illustrations drawn by Charles Alexandre Lesueur between 1816 and 1837. Andrew Cuomo ordered the mass production of cloth masks and state-issued sanitizer in NY prisons. [13] According to this view, when the female portion of Adam separated to form Eve, disharmony followed, but one could attempt to regain harmony through celibacy. ���Ŭ�PO[�P���a�~���@�[�1v2�cf2ۓ���n�YN������;��]���vL��lq��� �B�^�Nf�q��~M�b\�m�lΤ�,ϕ$Fs&�5���P2u�' gV�W�O$q�p"U{�� �n����$�[&3�!�R�$1~ϙΧI�-��ѝȱ�L!YF_�]8���P,�E��ۄ7��,Bz ��?�L�p�c,��$IŬ�Y ������ܐDp&� Owen leapt at the offer. 0000001547 00000 n Born in Wales. But eventually he couldn't keep up that pretense any longer. George Rapp himself stated the firm’s design philosophy: ‘ ”Watch the eyes of a child as it enters the portals of our great theatres and treads the pathway into fairyland. After two years, several reorganizations and seven different constitutions, Owen's great experiment collapsed. In 1791, George Rapp said, "I am a prophet and I am called to be one" in front of the civil affairs official in Maulbronn, Germany, who promptly had him imprisoned for two days and threatened with exile if he did not cease preaching. These words echoed throughout the Indiana State Museum auditorium Tuesday as Gov. In the 1780s, George Rapp began preaching and soon started to gather a group of his own followers. He was born at home in Cannon Falls Township on May 11, 1918. can Harmony Society of George Rapp (Bestor 1950). See more ideas about glass art, glass, evil spirits. It did not dispute his right to appeal his termination. At the time, Germany was strictly Lutheran, so he and his adopted son picked up and moved to the United States. )U!���$5�X�3/9�� �(�$5�j�%V*�'��&*���r" (,!��!�0b;�C��Ң2(��ɘ� � I�8/ endstream endobj 5536 0 obj <> stream In the early 19th century, my hometown of New Harmony, Indiana was the site of two discrete attempts at utopian communal living. [10] Dissension grew when Rapp's predictions went unfulfilled. 0000004452 00000 n Johann Georg Rapp (1757–1847), also known as George Rapp, was the founder of the religious sect called Harmonists, Harmonites, Rappites, or the Harmony Society. See George A Rapp's compensation, career history, education, & memberships. After ten years, the Harmonists bought 20,000 acres on the banks of the Indiana Territory’s Wabash River, approximately 15 miles above its joining with the Ohio River. Born in Iptingen, Duchy of Württemberg, Germany, Rapp became inspired by the philosophies of Jakob Böhme, Philipp Jakob Spener, and Emanuel Swedenborg, among others. According to George, the prisoners earned what he calls “slave wages” for carrying out this work. Rapp predicted that on September 15, 1829, the three and one half years of the Sun Woman would end and Christ would begin his reign on earth. [6], On February 4, 1783, Rapp married Christine Benzinger of Fiolzheim. This first commune, 'Harmonie', (Harmony), Butler County, Pennsylvania, soon grew to a population of about 800, and was highly profitable. Rapp was called a tyrant and Society members his slaves. In 1814, the society sold their first town in Pennsylvania to Mennonites for 10 times the amount originally paid for the land, and the entire commune moved out west to Indiana where their new town was also known as Harmony. The Idea of the City of Refuge The Idea of the City of Refuge Chapter: (p.9) 1 The Idea of the City of Refuge Source: City of Refuge Author(s): Michael J. Lewis ... (the three towns created by George Rapp), and even some that were purely imaginary (those planned by Albrecht Dürer and Johann Valentin Andreae). https://www.archives.gov/nhprc/projects/catalog/harmony-society RAPP GEORGE D. Age 52, of the North Hills, on Monday, January 31, 2011. He was accused of killing his son Johannes – who died in an industrial accident. His brother, Adam (born on March 9, 1762), and three sisters, Marie Dorothea (born October 11, 1756), Elise Dorothea (born August 7, 1760), and Maria Barbara (born October 21, 1765) later followed him to America; however, Adam died at sea. (*���(%�8H����8c�-�� f�ԉd�9�@6_IjH��9���(3=�D����R�1%? George Washington Rappleyea (July 4, 1894 – August 29, 1966), an American metallurgical engineer and the manager of the Cumberland Coal and Iron Company in Dayton, Tennessee. George Rapp's life was not without controversy and problems. The discussions resulted in my decision to o;ffer the authors the opportunity to update their manuscripts and to submit each revised arti-cle for the customary peer-review process of the Journal, with the under-standing that those accepted for publication would appear serially in … (The Harmonists did not mark their graves.) �͋-�A�6 7JL&��D�_�\�pW�K�ٯ��)?�7ד�Z/p��ē%|L [8][9], George Rapp was tall, blue eyed, broad shouldered, with long hair and a patriarch's beard. Eric Holcomb recited the motto that Dr. George Rapp, the 2019 Sachem award winner, lives his life by. In 1807, celibacy was advocated as the preferred custom of the community in an attempt to purify themselves for the coming Millennium. [2][3] To the great consternation of church and state authorities, this peasant from Iptingen had become the outspoken leader of several thousand Separatists in the southern German duchy of Württemberg. They felt that by creating these beautiful web filled balls, that any witches or evil spirits would be attracted to their beauty, and then they would be captured by the webbing, thus keeping the occupants of the home or business safe. George RAPP, the founder of this peculiar communistic religious sect or association, was a native of Iptingen, Wurtemberg, Germany, where he was born October 28, 1757. In the decade before they moved to Pennsylvania in 1824 to construct Economy (now Ambridge) on the Ohio River downstream from Pittsburgh, Rapp's Harmonists had made New Harmony famous as "that wonder of the west" with 180 buildings, 2,000 acres of … Contemporary illustrations drawn by Charles Alexandre Lesueur between 1816 and 1837. The county counters that Rapp was fired for legitimate reasons and that he brought his troubles on himself. Western Territory B. Advocates like Dave George, RAPP’s associate director, considered this especially outrageous, given that as the crisis unfolded, NY Gov. Loving husband of Pamela A. Having come to America in 1804, all but penniless, Rapp by 1844 had stashed away more than half a million dollars in gold and silver in the Society’s vault. Sophia originally carrying a meaning of “cleverness, skill“, the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis (“wisdom, intelligence”), was significantly shaped by the term philosophy (“love of wisdom”) as used by Plato. The Harmonites were Millennialists, in that they believed Jesus Christ was coming to earth in their lifetime to help usher in a thousand-year kingdom of peace on earth. One of the first nonreligious communities was New Harmony, founded in 1825 when the British manufacturer Robert Owen purchased Harmony, Indiana, from German Pietist preacher George Rapp and his followers. 0000004161 00000 n . By 1802, the Separatists had grown in number to about 12,000 and the Württemberg government decided that they were a dangerous threat to social order. George Rapp, in the 1780s, gain a group of followers as the fownder of a united community – the Harmony Society- around his own religion based in his philosophy and literal interpretation of the New Testament. Rapp's religious beliefs and philosophy were the cement that held his community together both in Germany and in America – a Christian community and commune, which in America organized as the Harmony Society. Ten years after the move to Indiana the commune moved again, this time it returned to Pennsylvania and named their town 'Ökonomie', Economy. Thomas Cole was a painter in the mid 19th Century. Rapp produced a book with his ideas and philosophy, Thoughts on the Destiny of Man published in German in 1824 and in English a year later. Arthur Versluis, "Western Esotericism and The Harmony Society", "New Harmony's First Utopians, 1814-1924", "Frederick Rapp Papers, 1816-1827, Collection Guide", Johann Georg Rapp in the German-language in, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Rapp&oldid=994532761, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Johannes Rapp (1783–1812) and Rosine Rapp (1786–1849), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 05:38. Asked 2/1/2019 10:06:42 AM. [1] Rapp was a Pietist, and a number of his beliefs were shared by the Anabaptists, as well as groups such as the Shakers. He held this position in the summer of 1925 when he became the chief architect of the Scopes Trial. x�c```b``�f`e``�`�[email protected] >6FF��9Ͻ�E�����v0vԷ�k��}ٚ�u-d�n֭i[Wz^��6? 0000002959 00000 n Learn more about Protestantism in this article. George A Rapp is Senior VP/Dir:IT at Stonebridge Bank. This idea was initially rejected, ... the geoarchaeologist George Rapp concluded that the “most tenable hypothesis for the cause of this destruction [Troy VI] lies in foundation failures stemming from earthquake-induced earth movements in the underlying unconsolidated materials. In 1807, celibacy was advocated as the preferred custom of the community in an attempt to purify themselves for the coming Millennium. Also, in Economy, Pennsylvania, there are glass bottles and literature that seems to indicate that the group was interested in (and practiced) alchemy. Apr 11, 2014 - Witch balls were first created long ago, by glass blowers. George Rapp and the Harmony Society. Real Utopia: Sketches, drawings, photographs and books on American utopian communes; Robert Owen's New Harmony in Indiana, George Rapp's Harmony and Economy in Pennsylvania, Nikolaus von Zinzendorf's Bethlehem and Nazareth in Pennsylvania, and other ideal cities or communal societies. Perhaps his greatest error was in 1831 when he accepted Bernhard Müller, who called himself Maximilian Count de Leon, the "Lion of Judah" as the man who would unite all true Christians. Reichert, who became known as Frederick Rapp, was the business leader and public spokesman for the Harmony Society, drew up the town plan for its new village at New Harmony, Indiana, in 1814, and served as one of the delegates to the Indiana Territory's Constitutional Convention in 1816. In 1804, Rapp was able to secure a large tract of land in Pennsylvania and started his first commune. Owen, an energetic but fickle reformer, became restless with his work in Britain and in 1825, he purchased New Harmony—an Indiana commune originally founded by George Rapp's Harmony Society of mostly German immigrants in 1814. [12] Some other books that were found in the Harmony Society's library in Old Economy, Pennsylvania, include those by the following authors: Christoph Schütz, Gottfried Arnold, Justinus Kerner, Thomas Bromley, Jane Leade, Johann Scheible (Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses[2]), Paracelsus, and Georg von Welling (Opus Mago-Cabalisticum), among others. The marker was donated by non-Harmonists and the Society accepted it reluctantly. His sermons reflect a keen aspiration for achieving uniformity: “Society united in 11 MINS – 23 MINS Before long, industries that had thrived under George Rapp's followers were either sputtering or out of business altogether. The persecution that Rapp and his followers experienced caused them to leave Germany and come to the United States in 1803. This is perhaps why they believed that people should try to make themselves "pure" and "perfect", and share things with others while willingly living in communal "harmony" (Acts 4:32-37) and practicing celibacy. George Rapp came to America from the Duchy of Württemberg, Germany in 1803 in search of land for his followers free from the religious persecution they faced in Germany. The couple had two children, a son, Johannes (December 22, 1783 – 1812), and a daughter, Rosine (February 10, 1786 – 1849). After Rapp's death in 1847, a number of members left the group because of disappointment and disillusionment over the fact that his prophecies regarding the return of Jesus Christ in his lifetime were not fulfilled. Old Economy Village Old Economy Village, located in the small western Pennsylvania town of Ambridge, survives as a testament to one charismatic man's religious zeal and his followers' belief in his ideas. Some time around 1790 Rapp, a planter and self-proclaimed prophet, was … The specific location of Johannes's gravesite within the cemetery is unknown. Harmony in Business: Christian Communal Capitalism in the Early Republic - JOSEPH P. SLAUGHTER The purpose of the community was to be worthy of Christ and prepare for his return. It’s founder, Father George Rapp believed in humankind coming together and living as a singular entity. The Indiana settlement was sold to Robert Owen, at which point it was renamed New Harmony, Indiana. Despite having failed at his spiritual mission, George Rapp had initiated, perhaps unwittingly, one of the grandest social experiments and astounding economic successes in U.S. history. [citation needed]. trailer << /Size 5537 /Prev 1097620 /Root 5528 0 R /Info 5526 0 R /ID [ <549AF5481F545643846DD8012407C622> <34BC2D6C8BEA00612BDC356748F45345> ] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 5528 0 obj <>/Outlines 1528 0 R/Pages 5517 0 R/StructTreeRoot 5525 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences 5529 0 R>> endobj 5529 0 obj <<>> endobj 5530 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF /Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 5531 0 obj <> endobj 5532 0 obj <> endobj 5533 0 obj <> stream Let's begin with George Rapp and his Harmonists, nearly 800 of whom came to America in 1804. Rapp and his followers, the Harmonites, believed Christ would return in their lifetime. 233–34. (Mullen); devoted father of Kristina (Peter) Belcastro, Sarah and Rebecca Rapp; proud grandfather o The second, the briefer of the two, was led by the British industrialist Robert Owen. Explanation: New questions in Social Studies. At Harmony, the Harmony Society was formally organized on February 15, 1805, and its members contracted to hold all property in common and to submit to spiritual and material leadership by Rapp and associates. �$�2f�O��w�0 ~z#G׵ِk�� George Mayer Rapp, Jr. Oct. 8, 1946 - Nov. 28, 2020 GREENWICH - George Mayer Rapp, Jr., 74, of Greenwich, passed away at his home on November 28, 2020. In the decade before they moved to Pennsylvania in 1824 to construct Economy (now Ambridge) on the Ohio River downstream from Pittsburgh, Rapp's Harmonists had made New Harmony famous as "that wonder of the west" with 180 buildings, 2,000 acres of … THE OWENITES: The Rappites sold the land in 1825 to Robert Owen, a Welsh socialist. Owen had a very hard time acknowledging that there was a failure at New Harmony. This was the Harmony that George Rapp had envisioned. Pitzer and Elliott, "New Harmony's First Utopians, 1814-1924,", pp. Rapp as painted from memory by Phineas Staunton (1835). Johann Georg Rapp (George) was born on November 1st, 1757 in the Duchy of Württemberg, near Iptinginen, about 15 miles northwest of Stuttgart. His last words to his followers were, "If I did not so fully believe, that the Lord has designated me to place our society before His presence in the land of Canaan, I would consider this my last".[14]. :�li�թ�k��¦����+^�i��ymvֵI��^^�$ dH?���x���ǯ��b�D�L���k���t�i��&��No�.��R�Ͳ��W�Z���v�^����Wh The Harmonite commune ultimately failed because the policy of celibacy prevented new members from within, and the majority of the outside world had no desire to give up so much to live in a commune. One of the first nonreligious communities was New Harmony, founded in 1825 when the British manufacturer Robert Owen purchased Harmony, Indiana, from German Pietist preacher George Rapp and his followers. Watch the bright light in the eyes of the tired shopgirl who hurries noiselessly over carpets and sighs with satisfaction as she walks amid furnishings that once delighted the hearts of queens. George Mayer Rapp, Jr. Oct. 8, 1946 - Nov. 28, 2020 GREENWICH - George Mayer Rapp, Jr., 74, of Greenwich, passed away at his home on November 28, 2020. It was the second of three towns built by the communal religious group known as the Harmonists. This chapter begins by describing the meaning of “city of refuge,” which derives from the Bible, for it was only logical that Christian societies suffering persecution and seeking sanctuary look there to find solace and guidance. The society was formally dissolved in 1906. They believed that the old ways of life on earth were coming to an end, and that a new perfect kingdom on earth was about to be realized. In the year that followed Rapp changed his mind, but one third of the Society members separated and joined with Müller in establishing a separate community, the New Philadelphian Congregation. H�b``������$����WR����~�������|@���T��#���2S/`M. The Harmony Society was a Christian theosophy and pietist society founded in Iptingen, Germany, in 1785. The idea of the garden as paradise is an important theme in understanding the Labyrinth [s connection to the garden. In 1791, George Rapp said, "I am a prophet and I am called to be one" in front of the civil affairs official in Maulbronn, Germany, who promptly had him imprisoned for two days and threatened with exile if he did not cease preaching. The first was spearheaded by the German Pietist preacher George Rapp, a millenarist convinced he would shortly present his followers at the gates of heaven. Franklin County Prosecutor Shawn Sant authorized the county's Seattle attorney to explain what led to the lawsuit, including the misconduct allegations that preceded Rapp's termination. User: _____ painted scenes of the American landscape, A. George Rapp B. Thomas Cole C. Henry David Thoreau D. Robert Owen Weegy: Thomas Cole painted scenes of the American landscape. George (Rip) Rapp is Regents Professor Emeritus of Geoarchaeology and was formerly director of the Archaeometry Laboratory at the University of Minnesota. The Harmony Society had its roots in Germany in the 1780s, but founder Johann George Rapp wanted more freedom for their Anabaptist sect. THE OWENITES: The Rappites sold the land in 1825 to Robert Owen, a Welsh socialist. �,�KsT��&Ӵ$�“ai�w�p���9=}�q�CQ�+M-��n9*-H"O�u�\g�*koS��{�t�pd%n]�T�u��`���:T�F�HF �h��A�����4opHp*t�E�$�|�9��{��< Born in Germany, George Rapp experienced a religious vision that would cause a chain of events leading to the establishment of Old Economy. 0000001524 00000 n Johann Georg Rapp (November 1, 1757 in Iptingen, Germany – August 7, 1847 in Economy, Pennsylvania) was the founder of the religious sect called Harmonists, Harmonites, Rappites, or the Harmony Society.Born in Iptingen, Duchy of Württemberg,… George Rapp and the Harmony Society. _____ painted scenes of the American landscape, A. Thomas Cole B. Robert Owen C. George Rapp D. Henry David Thoreau Thomas Cole painted scenes of the American landscape. His group officially split with the Lutheran Church in 1785 and was promptly banned from meeting. George Rapp lived out his remaining days in the town of Economy, Pennsylvania , until August 7, 1847, when he died at the age of 89. Johannes's name is the only one listed on a stone in the Harmonist cemetery in Harmony, Pennsylvania. After his father's death in 1771, Rapp trained as a journeyman weaver. Ours are from Kitras Art Glass. Harmony in Business: Christian Communal Capitalism in the Early Republic - JOSEPH P. SLAUGHTER Frederick Rapp also helped choose the site for the permanent seat of government of Indiana in 1820 that was later named Indianapolis and held leadership roles in several Indiana banks. He also developed an interest in preaching. During elections, the Society was seen as a monolithic voting block which caused political ill feelings and generated animosity against Rapp. [4][5], Rapp learned the art of wine making from his father, a farmer. ��m�����%%8 N.�E^Fm�3�A�J�R�T`s�L�P�[�x>*�-d=�\�$��s(Y��1K�ᢛZ���3����Z���m�Wc=���X4E��N`�}S���!��r=8 v��S����k�A10݊�-���,��ѵ� ��l�d��*�wYznz�X�Y1�&��pK��4��JŢ+"��A�b�;ܝ�W�,��>�TM%��6\X���ϗZ~'ڊ����،�!s3Z2�rkS"�Xu�j_y0'O>�k��ˌ��~r�e�`G�C�;��4�÷���2��4W� �/6��t��9���5r��+� \jo�o���ً3�M�^��ڞ*,�5��c���s|�)�U,1l]��'J;��6Y���+a���[c�ľ�%�3�R��Lr�+S����D� 0 ��9� endstream endobj 5534 0 obj [/ICCBased 5535 0 R] endobj 5535 0 obj <> stream The Harmonites tended to view unmarried celibate life as morally superior to marriage, based on Rapp's belief that God had originally created Adam as a dual being having male and female sexual organs. s. Log in for more information. George Rapp said of one of his theaters, “Here is a shrine to democracy where the wealthy rub elbows with the poor.” The Oriental Theatre (1926), now called the Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theater, is an example of theaters that drew on exoticised motifs in order to satiate the cultural hunger for styles of faraway lands. THE HARMONISTS: German farmer George Rapp and 400 followers arrived in New Harmony in 1815, creating a community based on productivity, worker-owned industries, and shared resources. 2A. 0000003204 00000 n South C. East D. Northeast They were nonviolent pacifists, refused to serve in the military, and tried to live by George Rapp's philosophy and literal interpretations of the New Testament. [4] Johannes, who trained as a surveyor, died at the age of twenty-nine in an industrial accident. George Rapp. New Harmony is the site of not just one, but two early American utopian communities. %PDF-1.6 %���� 5527 0 obj << /Linearized 1.0 /L 1208218 /H [ 4452 1084 ] /O 5530 /E 5536 /N 127 /T 1097632 /P 0 >> endobj xref 5527 10 0000000015 00000 n "Philanthropist" by his own designation, mill owner, idealist and social dreamer, educational and labor reformer. Along with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism became one of three major forces in Christianity. 11 MINS – 23 MINS Before long, industries that had thrived under George Rapp's followers were either sputtering or out of business altogether. George Laverne Rapp died peacefully at Cannon Rivers Senior Living on Sunday, November 15, 2020, at the age of 102 years. The town of Harmony was the first founded in 1814 under the leadership of German immigrant George Rapp. The initial move scattered the followers and reduced Rapp's original group of 12,000 to many fewer persons. can Harmony Society of George Rapp (Bestor 1950). |Score 1|Jay901|Points 8306| User: Jefferson's more liberal view of expanding rights for all Americans was most favored by what region of the country?A. Real Utopia: Sketches, drawings, photographs and books on American utopian communes; Robert Owen's New Harmony in Indiana, George Rapp's Harmony and Economy in Pennsylvania, Nikolaus von Zinzendorf's Bethlehem and Nazareth in Pennsylvania, and other ideal cities or communal societies. But eventually he couldn't keep up that pretense any longer. The first was spearheaded by the German Pietist preacher George Rapp, a millenarist convinced he would shortly present his followers at the gates of heaven. ~��f����wٝ'�]3���y��!�a1ɺ"_�'N|�*��",���A�ܲ�5"W/k�۩���Q��J�/=MO;d��%;��Z�j�):� [1] Rapp was summoned to Maulbronn for an interrogation and the government confiscated Separatist books. In 1804, the Harmony Society, led by George Rapp, came to the United States, looking for religious freedom. The Harmony Society, led by George Rapp, arrived in the United States in 1804 and settled in Pennsylvania before purchasing 20,000 acres on the Wabash River and moving to Indiana in 1814. He had a powerful voice, which matched his commanding presence. In the Lomersheimer Declaration, written in 1798, Rapp's followers refused to serve in the military or attend Lutheran schools. Spotlights events, ideas, and people, and sheds light on the history of North American geology as a whole. Question. With its many intellectual jewels on the evolution of scientific concepts, this book will provide many happy hours of entertainment and instruction for anyone interested in the history of science, especially that of the earth sciences. Rapp had decided to sell the second of his communal towns, New Harmony, Indiana—the complete town with all of its buildings, factories, and agricultural fields. Utopian leaders -- typically charismatic figures with messiah complexes, like George Rapp -- were usually fascinating head cases. After the Harmonists sold their Indiana land in 1824, he relocated with other members of the Society to Economy, Pennsylvania, where he died in 1834. Protestantism, movement that began in northern Europe in the early 16th century as a reaction to medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. In 1791, George Rapp said, "I am a prophet and I am called to be one" in front of the civil affairs official in Maulbronn, Germany, who promptly had him imprisoned for two days and threatened with exile if he did not cease preaching. Johannes's daughter, Gertrude (1808–89), later became a minor American celebrity and organized the Society's silk production at Economy, Pennsylvania. Easily the most gruesome of Harmonist misadventures was the death of George Rapp’s natural-born son, John, who is officially reported as having died in an 1809 mill accident, but is popularly alleged to have succumbed to the ravages of being castrated by his father for siring a child in contravention of the Society’s rule against sexual intercourse between spouses.

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